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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 3, p. 398.

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lous and fertile, but part of it is very subject to drought. In
i904 the number of passengers carried was I4,500,000, of
whom I3,500,000 were of the third class. The goods traffic
in the same year amounted to 3,000,000 tons, consisting
chiefly of coal, cotton, dyes, grain and seeds, fruits and vege-
tables, metals, oils, provisions, salt, spices, sugar, stone, to-
bacco, timber, and hides and skins. At no period during its
existence has the Madras Railway earned its interest charges
during the full year, and in only three half-years has it earned
any surplus profits. Since the transfer of the East Coast State
Railway, its income has improved, but it still involves the state
in a considerable loss, the deficit for I904 being 23{ lakhs.
North- The North-Western State Railway began its existence as the
etstern Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway, which was promoted by a
Railway. company under the original form of guarantee, and extended
from Delhi to Multan via Lahore, and from Karachi to Kotri.
The interval between Kotri and Multan was unprovided with
a railway, and traffic was exchanged between these places by
a ferry service on the Indus. In I87I and 1872 sanction was
given for the connexion of these two points by the Indus Val-
ley State Railway. At the same time the Punjab Northern
State Railway from Lahore northwards towards Pesh5,war was
begun. In i886 the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway was
acquired by the state and amalgamated with these two rail-
ways, under the name of the North-Western State Railway.
It has since been extended in all directions; and at the end of
June, I905, the administration worked 4,028 miles of railway,
of which I70 miles were double line, and 1,042 miles had been
built for strategic purposes along the north-west frontier. It is
now the longest railway in India under one administration. It
includes the Southern Punjab Railway, constructed and owned
by a company, and the railways owned by Patiala and other
Native States in the Punjab. It runs through the wheat grana-
ries of India, and through some large and populous cities and
cantonments, but it has been severely handicapped by long
stretches of strategic and semi-strategic lines. The canal and
colonization schemes of the Punjab Government have, how-
ever, given a great impetus to the traffic. In 1903 it covered
its interest charges for the first time, and in I904 yielded a
profit to the state, after paying all expenses and interest
charges, of nearly 7' lakhs. The number of passengers carried
in I904 amounted to 25,500oo,ooo, of whom 24,000,000 were of
the third class. The quantity of goods amounted to 6,500,000
tons, the principal traffic being in grain (chiefly wheat) and

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