Annual of Urdu Studies, v. 2, 1982 p. ii.

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Vowels: a 3 e i 7 0 5 u il ai au


b <^ r j f kJ

P V r ', q j

t c z -/ k J

t ^ z A 9 J

s ^ s ^ 1 J

j S. ^ m r

c s u n 0

h C z ^ N o

x t t^ J. w j

d j z h

d j 1 H A

z J ^ t y <^.

1. The letter Aajnza is not transliterated.

2. Word-final A is indicated only when it is pronounced. E.g., in nig ah, but not in ga^Tda.

3. "Izafat" compounds are indicated by -e-.

4. The Arabic definite article is written: (-)al-.

5. The w of conjunction is written: -o-.

6. English rules of capitalization will be followed for proper names, titles of books, etc.

7. Example: Ghalib's couplet on the cover

hal kahaN tamanna ka d^sra qadam ya-rabb ham n'e daSt-e'imkaN k^ 'ek nagS-e-pS paya

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