manuscripts, though no one seems to know much about them. In fact, Nava's only claim to fame is the present poem of Jur'at's. Other poems of Jur'at's against Nava and some other adversaries survive; some of them are in extremely bad taste and are also marred by a hard and brazen obscenity. It is only in the present poem that Jur'at's voice seems to cut across time and space and personal grievance, and resounds vividly even after nearly two hundred years.
Ahmad Husain Qamar. Homan Nama. Lucknow: Newal Kishore Press, 1900, p*. 694.
2M.H. Abrams. THE MIRROR AND THE LAMP. Oxford, 1977, pp. 8-14.
3 ^ Quoted by John Bayley in the New York Review of Books, 1 October
1982, p. 10.
For a detailed discussion of Hali's ideas, see "Halt and his Muqaddamah: the Creation of a Literary Attitude in Nineteenth-Century India" by Laurel Steele (Annual of Urdu Studies, #1, 1981, pp. 1-45).
For more on the Progressives in Urdu, see Carlo Coppola, "Urdu Poetry, 1935-1970: The Progressive Episode," two volumes, unpublished Ph.D. diss.. University of Chicago, 1975.
The dates of Jur'at are based on Kulliyat-e Jur°at edited by Nurul Hasan Naqvi (Aligarh, 1971).