Anti-Arrack Movement, Prohibition and After
NOTES AND REFERENCES
1. Interestingly, Eenadu carries quarter-page and full page advertisements of the E.TV serials in the mode of film advertisements .Of late it has also begun marketing audio cassettes of songs from the E.TV serials and the scripts of these serials as well.
34 2. Robin Jeffrey, "Telugu: Ingredients of Growth and Failure." Economic and Political Weekly, February 1,1997, pp. 192-95.
3. 'Eenadu Sameeksha, 100th issue, December 1, 1995. This review magazine is produced by the Central Editorial Board of Eenadu, Hyderabad. It reviews the newspaper's achievements and failures and includes guidelines on reporting and language to Eenadu's staff. Its first issue appeared in 1988.
4. Eenadu Sameeksha op. cit., p, 23.
5. The rise of the TDP in AP has also meant-the rise of the Kamma caste to political power. NTR belongs to a Kamma family from Tenali in Guntur district. It must be noted that Ramoji Rao also belongs to a prosperous Kamma family from Krishna district. The Kapus (this caste group is larger than the Kamma group; while many sects of the caste are rich, land owning, some sects are categorized as OBC) had initially thrown in their lot with the TDP in order to counter the Reddi dominance in the Congress. However when they realized that it was the Kammas who held the reins in the TDP they withdrew their support. It is worth recalling that the "Kapunadu" gatherings organized by the Congress party under the leadership of Vangaveeti Mohana Ranga in Vijayawada in the late eighties were organized in response to the "Mahanadu" gatherings organized by NTR and his TDP.
6. Eenadu's move forced other big dailies to introduce district editions too. The popularity of these "minis" also led to the collapse of several local newspapers that flourished in major Andhra Pradesh towns such as drear Express in Kakinada, Eluru Times in Eluru, jameen Raitu in Nellore and Jaydsree in Vijayawada.
7. Eenadu Sameeksha op.cit.
8. These details have been taken from G. Parthasarathy's article "Growing Alcholism, Excise Revenue and Public Policy" in B. Sarveswara Rao and G. Parthasarathy ed. Anti-Arrack Movement of Women in Andhra Pradesh and Prohibition Policy, New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications, 1997.
9. K. Ilaiah "Andhra Pradesh's Anti-Liquor Movement" in B. Sarveswara Rao and G. Parthasarathy, op. cit., p. 87.
10. For more details about the role that literacy played in fuelling the struggle see, M. Shatrugna, "Literacy and Arrack in Andhra", Economic and Political Weekly November 28,1992, pp. 2583-4.
11. D. Narasimha Reddy and Arun Patnaik, "Anti-Arrack Agitation by Andhra Pradesh Women - A Retrospective Perspective" in B. Sarveswar Rao and G. Parthasarthy, op. cit., p. 43.
12. My analysis is confined to the Hyderabad editions of the paper. Though it might have been useful and interesting to examine other editions of the paper, the Nellore district editions for example, I think that the Hyderabad editions reveal the different ways in which Eenadu had portrayed liquor as a major urban problem to its readers.
13. Eenadu October 6, 1993.
14. It must be remembered that it was NTR who had actively promoted sales of arrack through the
Varuna Vahini scheme in the 1980s. For more details regarding this scheme see the Anveshi Report, "Reworking Gender Relations , Redefining Politics: Nellore Village Women Against Arrack", Economic and Political Weekly January 16-23, 1995, pp. 87-90.
15. Anveshi Report op.cit., p. 89.
16. See The Indian Express, 17,18 & 19 June, 1996 (Hyderabad editions).
17. See Vaartha 16 & 17, April 1997. Vaartha is a recently established Telugu daily which initially
threatened to win over a sizeable section of the Eenadu readership. It is published by Girish Sanghi of the Sanghi business group with A.B.K. Prasad as its editor. In terms of its format and features it
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