M^Jhj^, vol. 1, no. 2 24
Chelyshev., Y<, "Prem Chand," Contemporary Indian Literature, November, 1962, pp. 12-15ff. Gupta, Madan "Prem Chand in English.," The Secret of
Culture and Other Stories. Trans. Madan Gupta. Delhi:
Jaico Publishing House, 1959» p. 168. Gopal, Madan "Prem Chand - A Critical Appreciation,"
The Secret of Culture and Other Stories. Trans. Madan
Gupta. Delhi: Jaico Publishing House, 1959, pp.169-92. Singh, Narendrapal "Prem Chand and Punjabi Literature,"
Contemporary Indian Literature, May, 1962, p.l9ft» Tarsikar, M,S, "Prem Chand - The Novelist," Conservative,
August 1, 1965, pp. 25-24.
Six Poems From Surdas
Introduction Surdas was a blind Hindi poet who lived during the sixteenth century. He was a devotee of Krishna, and in his major collection, the Sur Sa^ar, we have about five thousand short devotional lyrics fairly reliably attributed to himo These poems were meant to be sung, and are popular at bhanan recitals to the present day.
The padas(short poems) of Gur are usually classified into: a) vinaya poems (poems of salutation) - an example is the first translation; b) balakrishna poems (poems about the childhood of Krishna) - the second translation is a not very characteristic example of balakrishna poem; and c) viraha poems, or poems of separation and the pangs of separation (of the ^opis from Krishna) - the last three translations are poems oj? viy^ha^ The p:opis (milkmaids) represent the jivas (human souls)f who long for union with God. The story of Krishna's birth, and the incidents of his childhood and youth are well-known throughout India and are referred to all through the Sur Sa^ar. This story as told in the tenth chapter of the Bha^avat Purana should be read by anyone interested in any of the Krishnaite poetso
The following translations are by S.Mo Pande and N.He Zide.
Six Padas 1. I worship the feet of the great Hari
Whose grace enables the crippled to cross mountains
and makes the blind see^
By his grace the deaf hear, the dumb speak once more, and the poor hold the royal chatra above their heads.
Sur says: The Lord is merciful; I worship his feet again and againo