that their interests can only be safeguarded by making the maximum contribution towards productivity. Why the capitalist usurps the major portion of the gains of increased productivity is irrelevant, and the behavouralist does not assign any importance to the objective material conditions. He is only concerned with the correction of workers' perception through psychological methods. The critical, intelligent and conceptual faculties of workers are often treated as danger signals because these can activate their revolt against the usurpers of values created by them. Such eventualities can be guarded against by using appropriate methods of recruitment, selection and psychological testing techniques. Once selected, the worker should be given the right sort of stimuli to extract the expected response. The twin concepts of \job enrichment5 and 'job enlargement' are regarded as solutions to the problem of job satisfaction and morale of workers, regarded as a strictly psychological phenomenon. Counselling and group dynamics are also used for correcting perspectives. It is obvious that the behaviouralists treat workers as psychic patients who can be controlled by methods of clinical psychology. Workers' protests against exploitation by employers by way of increased working hours, payments far below their contributions towards productivity, their dehumanisation and degradation, etc., are treated as 'mental abnormalities'. Emphasis on "similarity" of interests between workers and employers regardless of their material status and ownership of the means of production is the keynote of behavioural theories. The workers are constantly told that employers are engaged in a higlner order of mental labour which justifies their disproportionately large rewards.
Consumer behaviour is sought to be influenced by "rearranging their psychological motives". A "demand creating" function is emphasised in sales effort. Consumers are courted through cunning methods. The core of marketing is to make the consumer believe that what he buys is unique. Marketing managers are equipped with sophisticated tools of motivational rcsearcli, survey methodology, attitude measurement, scaling techniques, of forecasting and projection and other quantitative methods of behavioural analysis. By playing with the perception of consumers, they create a need and then satisfy it psychologically. The consumer knows little about the product. He merely looks for the brand names, labels, trademarks, etc., for which his mind is conditioned by powerful advertising techniques.
Thus, managerialism is intended to generate the maximum economic surplus for the owners by keeping contractual rewards to the minimum and by enhancing sales revenue All theories of management are oriented to this end. Management education is catering to this need. Behaviouralism is one of the most powerful schools of management theories which pervades all departments of business activity like personnel, finance, accounting and marketing. Mohindcr Kjmar