18 SOCIAL SCIENTIST
36 Radha Kumar, "City lives: women workers in Bombay cotton textile industry, 1919-39" (M Phil thesis. JNU. 1982).
37 N Bhadra, "The carters of Calcutta, 1870-1930" (mimeo), is an unusual study of urban workers in the unorganised sector. For a perceptive contemporary picture see, ARDesaiand S DP\\}sn, A profile of an Indian slum, Bombay, 1972.
38 The role of the 'outsiders' or surrogate spokesmen is perhaps a part of the internal logic of colonial societies assigning the intelligentsia a crucial role in the struggle for hegemony. S Bhattacharya, 'The intelligentsia in colonial society", Studies in History, January 1972, pp 89-104.
39 R K Newman, op cit, and D Kooiman. "Jobbers and the emergence of trade unions in Bombay city". International Review of Social History, XXII, no. 3. 1977.
40 G 0 I, Home Dept. (Political Branch), February 1920, no. 52, Report of Director, Central Intelligence, January 12, 1920; also Report of DCI, June 21, 1920.
41 Speech of N M Joshi at Madras Labour Conference, Kranti, July 30, 1927, MCT.
42 Meerut Conspiracy Case: Statement in the Court of R LYorke, Mecrut, 1932, by K N Joglekar, p 1856; statement by S A Dange, pp 2514 et seq.
43 Philip Spratt, "Indian trade union movement". Labour Monthly, IX, no. 9, 1927,p 606.
44 "Rules of the Girni Kamgar Union (Red Flag) Regtd", clause 4, Exhibit no. P-939-T. MCT.
45 Valiya, "The struggle of the working class". The Communist International, VIII, October 1, 1931, pp 516-526; "Prospects of the labour movement in India", ibid, VII, October 15, 1930. Also S P Bhise, Presidential Address at Bombay Textile Workers9 Conference, 21 June 1931, Bombay, 1931.
46 Eg, Jaspal Singh, India's Trade Union leaders, Delhi, 1980, estimates that 87.7 per cent of leaders (in a sample of 500 trade union office-bearers) have a "middle-class background'; the latter category is, however, open to question, particulary since the author bases it on prestige grading of occupations, pp 54-56.
47 W A Warmington, A West African trade union, London, p 123; Bruce H Millin, The Political role of labour in developing countries, Honolulu, 1963, pp 27-29, 115-116; E M Kassalow, National Labour movements in the post-war world, New York, 1966, p 236 et seq.
48 E D Murphy, "Class and community in India: the Madras Labour Union, 1918-21'*, IESHR, XIV. July 1977.
49 Dipesh Chakraborty, "Communal riots and labour: Bengal's jute mill hands in the 1890's" (mimeo. CSSS, 1976).
50 S Bhattacharaya, "Capital and labour in Bombay city, 1928-29", Economic and Political Weekly, XVI, nos. 42-43, October 1981, on Bombay workers' involvement in communal riots; Chitra Joshi, op cit, chapter V on Kanpur riots, 1931; R Dasgupta, op cit, is critical of Chakraborty's assessment of the 'community consciousness" of Calcutta workers; E A Ramaswamy's study of Coimbatore textile workers, "Trade unionism and caste in South India", Modern Asian Studies, X, no. 3, 1976.
51 M Gluckman. "Antropological problems arising from the African industrial revolution", in A Southall, Social change in modern Africa, London, 1961, p 81;
this is a study of tribalism among immigrant African miners in North Rhodesia.
52 V K Jayawardena, The rise of the labour movement in Ceylon, Durham, 1972, re. Tamil and Ceylonese workers. Indonesia should be an interesting case to study with not less than four distinct communities living in close urban contact; Cf W F Wertheim (ed). The Indonesian Town, The Hague, 1958, p 67.