17 "The Indian national question: a conceptual frame", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 17, Special No, July 31, 1982. For my earlier less satisfactory attempt at a conceptualisation of the problem, see "Great nationalism, little nationalism and the problem of integration: a tentative view", ibid, Vol 14, Annual No, Fob 1979.
18 Quoted in Kluyev, n 2, p 54. Also see A M Dyakov, The rational Problem in India, Moscow, 1966.
19 Maheswar Neog, Socio-Political Events in Assam Leading to the Militancy of the Mayamaiiya Vaishnavas, CSSSC, Calcutta, 1982; Amalendu Guha, ""The medieval economy of Assam", in Cambridge Economic History, Vol 1, c 1200-c 1750, Cambridge, 1982, pp 479-505 and "Neo-Vaishnavism to insurgency: a study of the peasant uprisings in 18th century Assam", in Ashok Mitra (ed), Oppression and Resistance:
Efsays in Honour of Samar Sen, Orient Longman, forthcoming, 1984.
20 "Observations on the Administration of the Province of Assam by Babu Anandaram
Dakeal Phookan", in Mills, n 12, Appendix J-pp xxxi-Ix; Anonymous, A Few
Remarks on the Ass amese Language and on Vernacular Education in Assam by a Native,
Sibsagar, 1855. 21-22 Amalendu Guha, Planter Raj to Swaraj; Freedom Struggle and Electoral Politics in
Assam 1826-1947 ,New Delhi, 1977, relevant sections.
23 "Little nationalism turned chauvinist: Assam's anti-foreigner upsurge 1970-80", serialsed in Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 15, Special No., October 1980; ibid, Vol 16, April 25, 1981 and ibid, May 23, 1981.
24 R KJhalajit Singh, A History of M am pun Literature, Imphal, 1976; S Chhatradhari, Manipuri Itihasda Irabat (in Manipuri), Imphal, 1972.
The first periodical in Manipuri language, Meitei Chanu, was published and edited by Hijam Irabat Singh (1986-1951) in 1922. The first politico-cultural organisation, the Nikliil Hindu Manipuri Mahasabha, was established in 1934 and was renamed Nikhil Manipuri Mahasabha in 1938. The toiling women's movement (nupilan) in 1938 against the milling and the transportation of local rice to outside the State by traders brought in its wake a new political awakening which gave rise to several mass organisations to take the place of the defunct Manipuri Mahasabha during the 1940's. Irabat Singh emerged as a nationalist learder and he joined the CPI during this period. The vanguard role the toiling women played in Manipur to rouse the people, lias no parallel of its own anywhere else in India. After the lapse of British paramountcy over Manipur, the Maharaja conceded a State Constitution. He ordered its first ever elections on the basis of universal adult sufTrage in 1948. This led to the formation of Manipur's first elected legislature and responsible government. Following the merger agreement of October 15, 1949, all these constitutional experiments at local initiative were, however, quashed.
25 The Naga Club of Kohima, established in 1928 at official initiative, demanded exclusion of the Naga Hills from the porposed British-Indian constitutional reforms in January 1929, in the course of its memorandum to the Simon Commission. In contrast to this, some Mizo gentlemen petitioned in 1933 and in 1934 for extending the reforms to their district. These events may be deemed as feeble beginnings of a process ofpoliticisation that led to the formation of the Naga National Council in 1945 and the Mizo Union in April 1946 in the respective terrains. See for details, Planter Raj to Swam], n 21, pp 320-328; Verricr Elwin, Nagaland, Shillong, 1961;
External Affairs Ministry, Govt. of India, The Naga Problem, New Delhi, nd; Piketo Sema, Naga Uprising 1946-1963, unpublished M Phil. thesis, JNU, 1979; article by V Venkata Rao on the Mizos in S M Dubey (ed), North East India: A Sociological Study, Delhi, 1978, p 216; B B Goswami.. The Mi^o Unrest: A Study of Politicisation of Culture, Jaipur, 1979. S K Ghaube, Hill Politics in North East India, Calcutta, 1973.
26 In 1971, scheduled tribes' percentage share in the relevant total population was 31 per cent in Manipur, 89 per cent in Nagaland and 94 per cent in Mizoram. All the three were multi-tribal and multi-lingual,