THE MAGNITUDE QF LAND REVENUE 53
by one Irak on Sarkasht lands and two manwaias on Paikasht lands,"9 For the collection of revenue a peculiar kind of Batai system was applied.10 Under this particular system then in vogue the state took certain number of kharwars in kind and the rest in Mobiyah, Mobiyah was a system by which the government was entitled to convert a certain number of traks in every kharwar into money at the established market rates.11 We cite the examples of Sat Ram, a peasant of Pargana Adwin of Kashmir to illustrate this system.
His gross produce 90 kharwars Sarkaree Hissa or State rfiare 45 kharwars Trakee and Abwabs 15 k^arwars Tl^e total government demand aaaounted to 60 kharwars out of 90 kharwars Now out of the state share the state took 37 kharwars io Mobiyah at various rates and the remaining twenty two kh^rwars and 8 traks in kind. The allowance to be deducted for carriage was two kharwars and two traks.12 Out of 37 kharwars and 8 traks commuted into cash, 22 kharwars and 8 traks were converted into money at the rate of Rs. 1.37 per kharwar and the remaining 15 kharwars at the rate of Rs. 1 25 per kh^rwar13 In another case 62.5 percent of the state share of revenue was commuted into cash on the basis of the price prescribed by the state and 315 percent of the produce was collected in kind 14 Apart from all these takes and messes there was still some room for graft. As a result of the heavy demands of revenue officials of Maharaja Gulab Singh the peasants were often forced to give up cultivation and consequently payments f^ll in arrears. By 1851, 30 lakhs of rupees were in arrears because maay peasants had deserted their lands due to the extortionate demands of the ^tate and its officials.15 In 1852 the revenue m arrears wa& assigned to the ara^y a& their salary ^ut the condition of t)a@ country was so bad that they couki not collect ip^regthao 8000 rupees36
Tbc3e revenues 4id not faU m wears merely due to nonpayment by the peasantry but also due to embezzlement and fraudulent practices on the part of revenue officials who collected the xeveaue from the peasants but did not pa^& it on to the state treasury.
During Maharaja Ranbir Singh's time (1857-1885) the magnitude of land revenue demand remained more or less the same. With regard to the system of trakee a slight relaxation was made. Instead of four, only two traks were charged and this system lasted upto I860.17 After 1860 attempts were made to introduce cash assessment but the assessment became heavier and resulted in further depressing the position of the peasant.18 In 1872-73 it was levied at the rate of five traks m some villages and in some at the rate of three.19 ^The whole syst^tt was so full of abuses at the intermediate levels that no significant improvement was registered in the state's finances nor in th^ condition of the peasantry.
In 1875 the harvest was a poor one tot the stale ^CBl took two shares of produce and left only one with tN p^sant.20 N^t yesr (1876) two traks per kharwar were again added to the assessflNrft llerides an