against rebellious or recalcitrant people or to present an appropriate show of force. The camera was introduced to India through the British army, and the pioneers of photography in India - John McCosh, Captain W.R. Houghton, Lieutenant H.C.B. Tanner, Captain HJ. Barr, and Captain L. Tripe, among others - were almost invariably military men.l In 1855, the East India Company had included photography in the curriculum at its Military Seminary at Addiscombe, but only after the Rebellion of 1857-58 were the official uses of photography to be fully explored, as the army routinely began issuing photographic equipment to its officers.2 The massive photographic exercise in typology. The People of India, which had been initiated at the instance of Governor-General Canning, was transformed by the Rebellion of 1857 into an official project of the State, and placed under the control of the Political and Secret Department.3 The Rebellion was surely not crushed by photography, but the British triumph at arms was made known through photographs that immediately received wide circulation: no Briton was likely to forget the heroic defense of the Residency at Lucknow, and similarly photographs of the attack on Delhi or the punishment inflicted on rebels were designed to impress upon the native the might of the British forces and their appetite for revenge. When, not long after the Rebellion, photographs were taken of Kuka rebels being tied to the mouth of the cannon and then blown to bits, Indians must have been suitably struck by the long arm of British chastisement. Samuel Bourne, who arrived in India in 1863 and produced a series of photographs of Kashmir and the Himalayas, openly expounded on the terror that photography could inflict on the colonized: "From the earliest days of the calotype, the curious tripod, with its mysterious chamber and mouth of brass, taught the natives of this country that their conquerors were the inventors of other instruments besides the formidable guns of their artillery, which, though as suspicious perhaps in appearance, attained their object with less noise and smoke" (p. 75).
The lengthiest chapter in Ryan's book is on the deployment of photography in anthropometry, ethnology, and anthropology, on photography and the depiction of "natives" and the poor of London alike (pp. 140-82), but here he traverses territory familiar to many scholars. It is this chapter which intersects most closely with the work of Christopher Pinney, particularly the first chapter of Camera Indica: The Social Life of Indian Photographs. In one respect, Pinney's canvas is not so wide: where Ryan considers the uses of photography in the geographic expanses of the British empire, Pinney offers a fragmented