Social Scientist. v 6, no. 62 (Sept 1977) p. 21.

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Responsibility, 1957, p 11. 6 Ibid., p 45. 51 A K Gopalan, Kerala, Past and Present, p 94. For Christian support to the CPI, see

V K S Nayar, op cit.; Fie, Kerala: Tenon of India. Bombay 1970, pp 71 ff. ^ The Hindu, 27 August 1957. 61 For the politics of land reforms in Kerala the most commendable study is the one

by V C Koshy (publication forthcoming, by Macmillan). Also T C Varghese,

Agrarian Change and Economic Consequences, Madras 1970. 64 Malaviya, op cit., p 89. 6" Quoted from E MS Namboodiripad, Kerala: Testerday, Today and Tomorrow, p 204;

also Turlach, op cit., p 134; Malaviya, op cit,, p 7, and Democratic Research

Service, op cit., p 60.

66 T C Varghese, op cit., p 217; G K Lieten. Dissertation, pp 94-99

67 Democratic Research Service, op cit., p 66.

6S The Weekly Kerala, 10 May 1958. At this stage Mannam made his first public attacks on the Kerala Education Rill.

69 Malayalee, 29 March 1959.

70 Malayalee, 4 May 1959.

71 Malayalee. 28 April 1959.

72 Kerala Janatha, 30 May 1959

7> Father Vadakkan in an interview with tlie author, July 1973.

74 This assertion that no one of them did ever or would ever have joined the low-class and low-caste Christophers was reiterated by several middle-class anti-communist agitators (Interviews in July and August 1973).

7r' Government of Kerala, Opposition Preparations for Violent Oreilhrow of th" Government, 1959, p 10.

^ Deepika, 19 June 1959.

77 Indian National Congress, Congress Bulletin, June-August, p 338.

78 Turlach, op cit., p 163.

79 F Engels, Anti-Duhring, Moscow 1969, p 374. ;<0 Alwaye Consultation, ^'Church, Society and State in Kerala", Papers and Findings of the Alwaye Consultation, October 1959, Banglore 1960, p 41.

81 Government ofKerala, Upsurge or Hooliganism, 1959, p 10.

82 The most illuminating story of the clamping down of presidential rule can be found in B N Mullick, My Tears with Nehru, 1948-1964, New Delhi 1972, pp 348 ff.

^ For the election results and analysis. Election Commission of India, Report of the General Elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, 1960; K G Krishna Murthy and G Lakshmana Rao, Political Preferences in Kerala, New Delhi 1968; KP Bhagat, The Kerala Mid-term Election of 1960 (The Communist Party's Conquest of New Positions), Bombay 1962; and Robert Hardgrave, in Wciner and Field, Electoral Politics in the Indian States, New Delhi 1975, pp 167-209.

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