Social Scientist. v 6, no. 63 (Oct 1977) p. 71.


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ON PROFITS AND PROFIT SHARING 71

a social phenomena which economic theory is powerless to explain,, and is better left aside. ^Wc shall have to discard pretensions of having theories as answers to problems which economics alone cannot solve-it is better to concede defeat than to have illusions of victory", (p 135).

Summing, it appears that the distinction between the emergence of profit and its appropriation, while ^analytically convenient9, is methodologically erroneous. Profit theory or for that matter neo-classical text book theory never really got off the ground precisely because pi eduction and distribution, the emergence of profit and its appropriation were delinked and explanations for them were sought within the framework of a ^free" market economy governed by the laws of demand and supply. Classical and Marxian political economy differed fundamentally from these supply and demand based analyses in that production and distribution, the emergence of profit and its appropriation, were simultaneously determined and their explanation was rooted in the relations of production. It is strange that the author rests content with providing a ^unifying approach5 to this problem, when the very foundations of neoclassical text book theorisation are being shaken and economists have begun increasingly to talk about winters of discontent and crises in theory.

NADELIA CHANDRA MOHAN

INSTITUTE OF APPLIED MANPOWER RESEARCH,MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL INDIA: A CASE STUDY, Report Number 1/1977, Allied Publishers, Bombay, 1977, pp 107.

In the light of the present Government's pronouncements on rural development, this book, which evaluates the role of manpower development in a general rural development strategy, is of timely significance. The book is based on a case study in Hissar distiict of Haryana which was conducted to ass'ess the changing pattern of skill requirements in the farm and non-farm sectors in the process of rural development.

A major finding of the study is that rural artisans, with their existing skills, cannot cater to the changing tastes of the rural population in Hissar district due to rising incomes. An example given is the preference for modern shoes over the desi juti (a locally made shoe). Another finding of the study is that a majority of farmers, including those with large" sized holdings, are not only not aware of modern practices but also do not have the necessary educational background to implement these piactices correctly. The study disc concludes that all existing training programmes have been woefully inadequate in generating necessaiy skills.

The recommendations of the study are: (1) the 10+2 programme with emphasis on vocational training, must be implemented; (2) programmes emphasizing on-the-job training should be given priority; and



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