Social Scientist. v 1, no. 7 (Feb 1973) p. 63.

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NOTES . 63.

competitiveness, helping export promotion^and so on. Thus the Government of India has only aided and abetted this process. The big bourgeoisie and the bureaucrats who control the leading rectors of the Indian industry have resorted to unfettered and indiscriminate use of computerisation and automation despite the resistance of organised workers in recent years. Against this reality, Government's commitment tp employment-oriented Fifth Plan rings hollow. Those who have already tasted the fruits of government policy know that the misuse pf computers cannot be stopped except through determined struggles and united action. It is the working class which can rescue this wonderful creation of mankind from thti[ grip of selfish interests and transform it from an instrument of intensified exploitation into one of an Allaudin's Lamp placed at the service of the' Indian people.


Bonus for All

FOR a long time Bonus has been a subject of controversy. To some, bonus is an ex-gratia payment, a mere charity on, the part of the employer, while others interpret it as a device for sharing the prosperity, a device for distributing profits or surpluses. Some have gone to the extent of linking it with productivity and hold the view that industrial employees alone are entitled to receive bonus.

The working class has been fighting against all these old concepts. They do not consider it a free gift bestowed upon them by the 'charity-minded5 employers. They argue that it is the duty of the State to secure, by appropriate legislative measures or through better economic policies, a living wage to all working people in agriculture, industry and services. The working class movement in India has been fighting, for a long time, for the acceptance of the view that bonus should be considered as deferred wage, a mechanism by which, to a certain extent, the widening gap between the actual wage and the living wage could be bridged. Instead of conceding the legitimate demands of the working people, the capitalists as a well as the Government have tried to resist and suppress the movement for bonus. But, ultimately, the working class movement won this battle by forcing the Government to accept bonus as a 'deferred wage'.

In 1954, the Allahabad High Court pointed out: "There can be no doubt that in modern times, bonus is clearly regarded as deferred wages payable to employees which may be claimed by them as'of right under the terms of employment. In the conditions under which modern industries

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