80 SOCIAL SCIENTIST
1 This is a collection of five historical essays written at different times, in several countries and for varying purposes and media. The author first came into prominence after his article, "The Development of Underdevelopment" was published in the Monthly Review, New York, September 1966. The book in its present form appeared in 1967.
2 This paper was first read out at a meeting of the South Asia Colloquium of the Pacific North-West held at the University of Washington in 1968.
3 See page 10-11 of the address cited. From the easily observable fact that certain sections of the indigenous industrial capitalists made notable gains during the two world wars and, more doubtfully, the depression, Bipan Chandra (following Gunder Frank) comes to the sweeping conclusion that industrial development in India under imperialism occurred only when the 'international economy' was forced to temporarily Weaken* or 'disrupt' its links—when the 'international economy* reforged these links, India's industrial development relapsed into backwardness and stagnation !
4 S K Mishra, in his review in Social Scientist, September 1972, asserted : "Marxists, particularty those who share the views of Andre Gunder Frank, may say that the Indian economy, including its agriculture, is part of the capitalist system."
6 Some of the well-known Marxist-Leninist theoretical writings on the subject are contained in the collection, Marx and Engels, On Colonialism, Moscow, 1968; Marx and Engels On Ireland and the Irish Question, Moscow, 1971; Lenin The Awakening of Asia, Moscow, 1965; The National Liberation Movement in the East, Moscow, 1969; and Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, Moscow, 1970.
6 By abstract, we refer to the highly generalised aspect of the theoretical work of Marx and Lenin, for instance the abstract theory of realisation and the abstract theory of ground rent.
7 See Lenin, A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism, Moscow, 1967, p 122