Social Scientist. v 9, no. 98-99 (Sept-Oct 1980) p. 80.


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BRITISH INDIGO 79

7 For a vivid account of the extravagance and lavishness of Indigo planters, see, C

Grant, Rural Life in Bengal, London, W Thaker, 1860. ^ The Report of Indigo Commission, appointed under Act XI of 1860, British Parliamsn-

tary Papers, Vol XLIV, 186p; L S O'Malley, Champaran, Bihar and Orissa District

Gazetteers, Superintedem, Government Printing, Bihar, Patna, 1938; and B B Kling,

The Blue Mutiny, op cit^

9 Two of the numerous ahbabs are cited here for illustration: Motarahi Rs 1 per tenant as a compensation for the pride which the tenant must be deriving because their planter owned a carriage or car. 'Phagunahi'-Rs 1 per tenant every year because tenants enjoyed the colourful Holi festival which their planter did not participate in. See PC Roy Chaudhury, Champaran, Bihar District Gazetteers, Super i tendcnt, Secretariat Press, Bihar, Patna, 1960.

10 On the basis of the data containei in the Report of Indigo Commission, op cit, the average loss to an indigo cultivator was Rs 9 to Rs 11 per bigha if his labour was valued at the prevailing market rate. Also see, Kling, The Blue Mutiny, op cit.

11 N K., Sinha, The Economic History of Bengal, Calcutta, Firma K L Mukhopadhyay, 1961, pp. 209-210; and Ghowdhury, op cit.

12 Kling, B B, Partner in Empire', Dwarkanath Tagore and the Age of Enterprise in India, University of California Press, 1976, pp. 86-87.

13 Kling, The Blue Mutiny, op cit.

lt Habib, op cit, pp 129-135, pp 295-297, also some other parts of this book.

l" 0' Malley, op cit., p 78.

H 0' Malley, L S op cit.

17 Evidence to the Agrarian Committee, mentioned in Roy Ghaudhury, P G, op cit.

^ The Report of Indigo Commission op cit.. Appendix 17,

1) One bigha is about one quarter of a hectare.

90 O* Malley, op cit.

21 Ghovvdhury, op cit., pp. 125-126.

22 Chowdhury, op cit., p. 192; and Kling, The Blue Mutiny, op cit., p 19.

31 Habib, op cit., pp 86-88.

24 See, M D Morris, South Asian Entrepreneurship and the Rashomon Effect, mimeo, for a well articulated statement of this hypothesis.

3 See, Marshall, East Indian Fortunes, op cit., for a recent statement of this line of thought.

38 A G Frank, On Capitalist Under development, Bombay, Oxford University Press, 1975;

A G, Frank, "The Development of Underdcvelopmcnl'', Monthly Review, September 1966.

27 K N Raj, ^Growth and Stagnation in Indian Industrial Development", Economic and Political Weekly, Annual Number, February 1976; and T Singh, India's Development Experience, Delhi, Macmillan, 1974.



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