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Notes to the Reader
Dates of Source Material
Sites of Old Marathi Inscriptions and Literary Activity
This dictionary, the product of five years' steady work on the part of its principal editor, fulfils an aspiration he held for many decades. Dr. Tulpule first told me in 1983 of his dream of preparing a dictionary of Old Marathi. Six years later, in September 1989, we inaugurated the project. When Dr. Tulpule died, at the end of August 1994, the work was essentially complete.
In planning the dictionary, Dr. Tulpule and I consulted extensively with Dr. Jayashree Gune, Professor of Sanskrit and Lexicography at the Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute. Her expertise was of invaluable help to us, and she saved us from many mistakes. The flaws that remain in the work are the result of our failure to follow her advice completely.
The work was carried out as follows: Dr. Tulpule, Dr. M. P. Pethe, Dr. D. G. Koparkar, and others extracted words from the inscriptions and the literary sources. This process took a bit more than one year. Dr. Pethe alphabetized the slips that had been created in the extraction process. Using these slips, Dr. Tulpule wrote and revised the first draft of the dictionary, carrying out this most important part of the work between the end of 1990 and the beginning of 1994. The entries were written on 8-1/2" x 6" sheets of paper that were bound together in files. Eventually there came to be sixty such files, each containing approximately 300 entries. In 1992, I began reading the entries that had been produced in this way. I made lists of queries and suggestions and sent them to Dr. Tulpule; especially problematic points we would discuss when we were able to meet in India. Meanwhile, Dr. Tulpule prepared his own lists of queries and sent them to Dr. V. B. Kolte, who responded in his characteristically thorough and generous way.
After Dr. Tulpule had prepared his final draft, the process of copy editing began. Mrs. Mrudula Joshi edited the first seven of the sixty files, and I edited the rest. At this stage, too, I raised numerous questions and brought them to Dr. Tulpule. He and I went through files eight through thirty-one and fifty through sixty before he died. As I had earlier sent lists of queries about files one through forty-five, there remained only four files (from रिकाम through विध्वंसणे) for which Dr. Tulpule did not have the opportunity to respond to my suggestions. In editing those four files, I have tried to adhere to the principles he used in dealing with problems we did have the chance to discuss.
As the copy-edited files became ready, the word- processing experts of Dnyana Mudra, Pune, entered them into the computer. Mrs. Shraddha Nirgude and Mr. Unmesh Dandavate did most of this work, under the direction of Mr. Gautam Ghate. Proofreading was done first by Dr. R. S. ("Appa") Arjunwadkar; then by a team of people that included Mrs. Joshi, Dr. Naresh Kavadi, and Mr. Y. E. Dhaygude; and finally by me. I also did some more copy editing as I read the proofs. Mrs. Shruti Pendharkar entered the corrections into the computer with great skill and care. Dr. K. S. Arjunwadkar reviewed the second proofs, making many valuable suggestions with respect to the Sanskrit etymologies. I corrected the final proofs alone.
Dr. Tulpule wrote the introduction, and I revised it after his death. Dr. Lee Schlesinger gave it a careful, critical reading; Mrs. Huberta Feldhaus helped with the proofreading; and Dr. G. M. Pawar, Dr. R. C. Dhere, Dr. Lee Schlesinger, and Mr. V. L. Manjul helped me find some final missing references for the notes, the bibliography, and the list of source material. Mr. B. M. Datar and Mr. Gautam Ghate made the map.
Dr. Tulpule was, and I am, grateful to all of those named above for their work on the dictionary, as well as to a number of other people and institutions who
have helped to make it possible. The Smithsonian Institution and the American Institute of Indian Studies provided financial support for the project, and Arizona State University was generous in granting me leave time. We received much help from Francine Berkowitz and Ernelle Ross of the Smithsonian Institution and from Dr. Pradeep Mehendiratta of the American Institute of Indian Studies. Mr. Madhav Bhandare, Regional Director of the American Institute of Indian Studies, attended to the day-to-day administration of the project for many years, remaining untiring and unruffled despite numerous set- backs and delays. Dr. Ashok Kelkar and Dr. R. V. Dhongade of the Department of Linguistics of Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute generously gave us the necessary institutional support. Mr. Ramdas Bhatkal of Popular Prakashan, Bombay, provided timely and important help in planning the final format of the dictionary, and Mr. Gautam Ghate, Mr. S. B. Phadnis, Mr. S. H. Dandawate, and the others at Dnyana Mudra were always a pleasure to work with. Dr. Pushpa Vasudev Tulpule provided valuable help in interpreting Āyurvedic terms, and Mr. Nilkanth Gangadhar Patwardhan prepared the press copy of the Marathi bibliography. I am especially grateful to them, to Mr. Shriram and Dr. Maya Tulpule, and to the rest of the Tulpule family for their sustained, enthusiastic support of this project.
It is a matter of great sorrow that Dr. S. G. Tulpule did not get to see the final results of his years of work on this dictionary, yet it is an honor and a joy for me to have worked with him on it. I am proud to have thereby helped preserve for future generations his remarkable skill at interpreting Old Marathi texts.
NOTES TO THE READER
◆ This dictionary is meant to be used in conjunction with a dictionary of modern Marathi or by speakers of modern Marathi. Words occurring in the same form and with the same meanings in Old Marathi and modern Marathi have generally not been included in this dictionary. For Old Marathi words not found here, the reader is advised to consult Molesworth's Marathi-English dictionary or another dictionary of modern Marathi.
◆ Many Old Marathi words occur in a variety of spellings. We have given such words in all the forms we have found in the sources we have used. "Cf." references point the reader to alternate spellings, each given in its appropriate alphabetical order. In many cases, additional meanings (and, in all cases, additional illustrative citations) can be found by consulting the entries listed in the "cf." references.
◆ In alphabetizing the entry words, we have ignored the anusvāra (ं) and the visarga (:) and we have followed the traditional Marathi practice of placing क्ष (kṣa) and ज्ञ (jña) at the end of the alphabet, after ह (h) and ळ (ḷ). In other respects, we have followed the traditional order of the devanāgarī alphabet.
Marathi (Marāṭhī) is one of the major languages of India. It is spoken by about seventy million people in the states of Maharashtra and Goa, as well as in the former princely states of Indore, Gwalior, and Baroda. Chronologically Marathi can be divided into three periods: Old Marathi, Middle Marathi, and modern Marathi. The earliest stage, Old Marathi, began in the eighth century and continued until the middle of the fourteenth century.
The period of Old Marathi, although it thus extended over about six centuries, was productive only during its last seventy-five years. Such great literary achievements were made during this short period that it has come to be known as the "Golden Age" in the history of the Marathi language. This period saw the rise and development of the Vārkarīs and the Mahānubhāvas, the two sects that produced the bulk of Old and Middle Marathi literature. The Jñāneśvarī, a poetical work of the first magnitude, was composed at this time, and the Mahānubhāvas produced their lively prose biographies, including the one that is held to be the oldest literary work in Marathi, the Līḷācaritra. In addition, most of the major stone and copper-plate inscriptions in Marathi date from this period. The one and only Marathi palm-leaf manuscript, the Kalānidhi, also comes from this period, and the only codified script for devanāgarī, sakaḷa lipī, was produced and used by the Mahānubhāva writers of this time. It was also during this time that Paṇḍharpūr and Ṛddhipur, the centers of the Vārkarī and Mahānubhāva cults respectively, developed. For these reasons, the Old Marathi period amply deserves the attention of lexicographers.
This is a dictionary of the Marathi language in the Old Marathi period. The Marathi of this time is to a great extent homogeneous in form, and it is fairly clearly distinguishable from the Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa languages that preceded it as well as from the subsequent Middle Marathi (c. 1350-1800). Old Marathi is the language of a great deal of inscriptional and literary material that is varied in theme, style, and vocabulary. This dictionary subjects this entire body of material to lexicography for the first time.1
Intended for use both by scholars and by native speakers of modern Marathi who wish to read Old Marathi texts, the dictionary gives meanings in both English and Marathi and provides illustrative citations of the meanings of the words. In preparing the dictionary, we have done our best to adhere to the principle, "No citation, no entry." It is our hope that, besides helping to make Old Marathi literature accessible, this dictionary can also provide a basis for dictionaries of subsequent periods of the language, and eventually for an historical dictionary of Marathi.
This dictionary is the first of its kind. There are at present two good dictionaries of Marathi, but neither is based on historical principles and neither deals adequately with Old Marathi. The first (Marathi-English) was compiled by J. T. Molesworth in 1831 and revised in 1857. It is essentially a dictionary of nineteenth-century Marathi, and thus not particularly useful for reading Old Marathi. Of all the Old Marathi literature, Molesworth and his associates were able to use only the Jñāneśvarī. The vast literature of the Mahānubhāvas, for example, had not yet been made available outside the sect; and many other texts to which we now have access were also not used. The other good Marathi dictionary currently available is the Mahārāṣṭra Śabdakośa (seven volumes plus supplement, Marathi-Marathi). This dictionary, which was published between 1932 and 1950, reproduces Molesworth's dictionary in Marathi, adding some words and meanings. Among the additions are a few drawn from the Old Marathi period, including some from a few of the Mahānubhāva poetical works; but still the Mahārāṣṭra Śabdakośa draws on only a fraction of
the sources now available.
Source Material for the Dictionary
The source material for this dictionary can be divided into two broad categories: epigraphical and literary. The epigraphical material consists of stone and copper-plate inscriptions written partly in Sanskrit and partly in Marathi. Even in some of the inscriptions written purely in Marathi—those at Dive-Āgar, Śravaṇabeḷgoḷa, Paḷasdev, Rāṇebennur, Hātnūr, Maṭhgāv, and a few more—the opening and closing formulas are in Sanskrit. The convention seems to be that the initial laudatory portion, the dating of the inscription, and the concluding benediction are reserved for Sanskrit, while the details of the grants made and the curse given to those who vitiate the grant deed are the privilege of Marathi. The numerous grants given to the temple of the god Viṭṭhala in Paṇḍharpūr, as well as the three-line inscription of Deuḷgāv Rāje (which is merely an ass-curse), for example, are recorded in Marathi. At the same time, there are inscriptions—for example, those at Āgāśī, Ter, Lonāḍ, and Paraḷ—that are overburdened with Sanskrit, allowing Marathi only a little space here and there. The tendency, however, is towards a greater and greater proportion of Marathi in the language, with Sanskrit receding further and further into the background.
The main bulk of the inscriptional source material for this dictionary comes from the corpus of Old Marathi inscriptions edited by S. G. Tulpule under the title Prācīna Marāṭhī Korīva Lekha (Poona, 1963). This corpus contains seventy-six inscriptions: sixty-three of them are dated; the rest, although undated, are datable to the period of Old Marathi. Most of the inscriptions are on stone; only ten are copper plates, and, of those, four (the ones from Bhor, Cikurḍe, Marmurī, and Miraj) are spurious and therefore have not been used as sources for this dictionary. The stone inscriptions that have been used include the older one from Akṣī, which is the earliest record in Marathi, dated A.D. 1012; the undated one from Śravaṇabeḷgoḷa, inscribed at the feet of the colossus of Gommaṭa; the two oldest inscriptions at Paṇḍharpūr, the foundation and renovation stones of the temple of the god Viṭṭhala there; the one at Pāṭaṇ, a record of the grants made toward maintaining a monastery built to facilitate study of the works of the astronomer Bhāskarācārya; and the one at Maṭhgāv, which is known for its hero stone.
Dated and detable Old Marathi stone inscriptions that have been searched out and edited by various scholars since the publication of Tulpule's corpus have also been included as source material for this dictionary. Some of these are found in V. B. Kolte's Mahārāṣṭrātīla Kāhī Tāmrapaṭa va Śilālekha (1987); the texts of the others are given in Appendix A. Including these inscriptions, the total number used for the dictionary is ninety-four.
The literary sources for the dictionary are ultimately the manuscripts of texts composed in the Old Marathi period. Almost all of these manuscripts are made of paper; the one exception is the manuscript of Kalānidhi, which is a palm-leaf manuscript.2 With the exception of Ṛddhipura Māhātmya, all of the literary sources for the dictionary are now available in print, in editions prepared by V. K. Rajvade, T. H. Avate, H. N. Nene, V. B. Kolte, I. M. P. Raeside, Y. M. Pathan, Anne Feldhaus, S. G. Tulpule, and other scholars.
The literary source material includes both prose and poetry, with the poetry outweighing the prose. Among the prose works are Līḷācaritra, Govindaprabhucaritra, and Smṛtisthaḷa; these are accounts in the form of anecdotes about, respectively, Cakradhara, the founder of the Mahānubhāva sect; his guru, Govindaprabhu or Guṇḍama Rāüḷa; and Cakradhara's foremost disciple, Nāgadeva. Nityadinīlīḷā, comprising the four short works Prasādasevā, Pūjāvasara, Mūrtijñāna, and Nāmāce Dahā Ṭhāya, is also in prose, as is Itihāsa Prakaraṇa, an account of the early history of the Mahānubhāva sect. The aphorisms and parables of Cakradhara were brought out separately under the titles Sūtrapāṭha and Dṛṣṭāntapāṭha respectively. These works are also in prose, as are Sthānapothī, a geography of the Līḷācaritra; and Pañcavārtika, a grammar of the Sūtrapāṭha. Indeed, most of the prose works of the Old Marathi period, including also Śrīkṛṣṇacaritra, have been produced by followers of the Mahānubhāva sect. The only exceptions are Vivekadarpaṇa, a work that belongs to the Nātha tradition; Vaidyavallabha Saṃhitā and Rasakaumodī, two texts on Āyurveda; and Pañcopākhyāna, a Marathi version of the Pañcatantra.
Heading the poetry used as source material is the Jñāneśvarī, Jñānadeva's eloquent exposition of the Bhagavadgītā in the form of ovī verses.3 Besides Jñānadeva's two other major works, Anubhavāmṛta (or Amṛtānubhava) and Cāṅgadevapāsaṣṭī, his Gāthā (the collection of his devotional songs, abhaṅgas) and the Gāthās of his contemporaries, including Nāmadeva, provide a large share of the source material. The contribution
of the Mahānubhāva sect to the poetical material is even greater. Mahānubhāva Old Marathi poetical works include seven major works (sātī grantha) led by Narendra's Rukmiṇīsvayaṃvara;4 the Dhavaḷās, or marriage songs, composed by Mahadambā; and Mūrtiprakāśa, an extremely long poem by Kesobāsa, the compiler of the Sūtrapāṭha, describing Cakradhara. Other poetical works from the Old Marathi period include Mukunḍarāja's Vivekasindhu and Paramāmṛta, as well as Cobhā's Ukhāharaṇa, a lengthy narrative poem on the marriage of Uṣā and Aniruddha.
Except for three of the eighteen chapters of the Jñāneśvarī, which have been critically edited by S. N. Banahatti, no critical edition exists for any of the texts that have been used for this dictionary. However, "diplomatic" editions are available for a number of Old Marathi texts. For example, Kolte has prepared diplomatic editions of the Līḷācaritra and other Mahānubhāva biographies, as well as of six of the seven major Mahānubhāva poetical works. Feldhaus and Raeside have produced similar editions of the Sūtrapāṭha and Gadyarāja respectively. These editions follow the method of choosing a single manuscript, generally the oldest, as the base manuscript and noting variants from other manuscripts in the footnotes. The following remarks made by Feldhaus in the Introduction to her edition of the Sūtrapāṭha (1983, p. 78) apply equally well to Kolte's editions of the Mahānubhāva texts:
The mss. exhibit no standardization in the written forms of words, either within a single ms. or between one ms. and another. This is [one] reason for the decision to make a diplomatic rather than a critical edition of the text, for the reproduction in full of the readings of a single ms. avoids the artificiality of any method of standardizing what appears to have been an orthographically and/or phonologically unstandardized language. The wide and frequent variations among the mss. have also made it necessary to choose only a small proportion of the variant readings to list in the footnotes to the text. I have tried to ignore all those variants which are clearly differences only of spelling or phonology, and to include only those variants which make a difference to the wording or meaning of the text.
The oldest text of the Jñāneśvarī comes from Rajvade,5 who claimed that the manuscript he used was written only a few years after the death of Jñānadeva. This claim cannot be verified on the basis of the manuscript, because he destroyed it out of disgust at its rejection by members of the Vārakarī sect. However, a linguistic examination of the text of Rajvade's edition reveals a number of phonologically and morphologically archaic forms of Marathi vocables, and thus appears to support Rajvade's claim. Although the scribe of Rajvade's manuscript may not have been Jñānadeva's contemporary, he was at least not very distant from him in time. In any case, Rajvade's text of the Jñāneśvarī is much earlier than the one Ekanātha edited in 1584. After editing the text painstakingly, Ekanātha warned future scribes against making interpolations in it, saying, "one who enters one's own verse into the Jñāneśvarī is placing a coconut shell in a dish of nectar" (Jñā. 18, Addendum, verse 5 [Kuṇṭe edition, Bombay, 1910]). But the warning went unheeded, and the work continued to be polluted by interpolations. S. N. Banahatti began the task of producing a critical edition of the Jñāneśvarī, but his death brought the work to a halt.
The problem of securing a genuine text is less severe in the case of works belonging to the Mahānubhāva sect. Most of the Mahānubhāva manuscripts are written in a code known as sakaḷa lipī. This code has been described by Raeside 6 and Kolte.7 Briefly stated, the code consists of a system of substitution of one devanāgarī akṣara for another, the substitute akṣara being written without the top line usual in devanāgarī. The code also includes a number of abbreviations, some of them differing slightly from scribe to scribe, for such commonly used words as parameśvara, jīva, maga, pari, and so on. This script was invented by Ravaḷobāsa, the author of Sahyādri-Varṇana, in about 1353. Its codification put a check on the modernization and corruption of the language of the Mahānubhāva texts, and proved extremely useful in preserving the original linguistic forms in them. It also helped scholars to determine the exact spelling of such words as suravaḍaṇe, for example, which had been wrongly read as sukhaḍaṇe8 until scholars obtained access to Mahānubhāva manuscripts written in sakaḷa lipī.
The textual problems connected with the Jñāneśvarī and the Mahānubhāva works are almost negligible in comparison with the problem of finding a reliable text of the Gāthās, or collections of abhaṅgas, of Jñānadeva, Nāmadeva, and the many other Vārakarī poet-saints. Together these poets have composed thousands
of abhaṅgas, but the only manuscripts we have are a few vahīs, or stitched notebooks, each giving a few pieces from a number of different poets. Avate made as much use as possible of these vahīs; his edition, the Sakala-Santa-Gāthā, has been taken as the only complete anthology of the abhaṅgas of the Vārakarī poet-saints. However, the Sakala-Santa-Gāthā is marred not only by a number of interpolations, but also by exchanges of authorship. The author's mudrikā, or signature phrase, which appears in the last line of an abhaṅga, is in many cases unreliable, and one must be extremely cautious in assigning a particular work to a particular author. The interpolations can be detected in part by the presence of Persian words in the abhaṅgas of Nāmadeva, Janābāī, and others; these words must have come into the texts much later. Still, in the absence of a better anthology, the Sakala-Santa-Gāthā, with all its shortcomings, forms an important part of the source material for this dictionary.
Taken together, the source material presents a variegated picture of the Marathi language in its early stage. The Līḷācaritra gives us a sampling of the spoken Marathi of its time, the Sūtrapāṭha reminds us to some extent of Sanskrit sūtra literature, the Jñāneśvarī is a masterpiece of elaborate literary Marathi, the Gāthās of poet-saints like Cokhāmeḷā and Nāmadeva can be called specimens of popular Marathi, and the inscriptions show a blend of Sanskrit and Marathi. Works like Vaidyavallabhasaṃhitā and Rasakaumodī show the capacity of Marathi in the field of medical writing, and Pañcopākhyāna and the longer poems of the Mahānubhāva authors illustrate the narrative and descriptive power of Marathi. In short, the source material is representative of a wide variety of spoken and literary forms of Old Marathi.
A complete list of the source material used for this dictionary is given separately, along with the abbreviations that have been used.
Plan of the Dictionary
The dictionary is based on all known Marathi inscriptions and literary sources from the Old Marathi period. Our aim has been to include all specifically Old Marathi words that occur in texts and inscriptions of the Old Marathi period; we have generally excluded words, among them Sanskrit tatsamas, that also occur in modern Marathi without any change of form or meaning from the Old Marathi period. However, some words common to Old Marathi and modern Marathi have been included to show the continuity of their usage. Among these words are such common ones as mī, tū, karaṇe, jāṇe, jarī, tarī, and kāãhī. We have also included some words found in modern as well as Old Marathi that have a variety of spellings in Old Marathi. (See the section on "Orthographic Variation," below.)
Each entry in the dictionary includes the following elements:
◆ the vocable in devanāgarī, in boldface type. Verbs are given in their infinitive form, nouns in their prātipadika (uninflected) form, pronouns in their nominative forms and adjectives either in their prātipadika form or in their nominative/accusative (direct) form in the gender or genders in which we have actually found them used in the Old Marathi sources. Adverbs, adverbial phrases, and other indeclinables are given in the forms in which they actually occur. Forms that are theoretically possible, but that we have not found attested in the Old Marathi sources, have not been included in the dictionary.
◆ in parentheses, a transliteration of the vocable. We have used the standard scholarly system for transliterating devanāgarī, expressing the anusvāra either by the nasal (ṅ, ñ, ṇ, n, m, or ṃ) corresponding to the following consonant or by a tilde (~) over the preceding vowel.
◆ an abbreviation indicating the grammatical category of the vocable. The primary categories we have used in classifying the entries are the parts of speech: nouns (identified by gender: masculine, feminine, or neuter), pronouns (identified by gender, person, and number, as well as by special kind, such as demonstrative or interrogative), verbs (identified as transitive or intransitive, also passive and causative), adjectives (identified by gender if found in only one or two genders and by number if found only in the singular or plural), adverbs, interjections, and other indeclinables. Although not ideal for classifying Marathi vocables, these categories are the ones most likely to be helpful to users of the dictionary. The abbreviations, along with others used in the dictionary, are found at the end of this introduction.
◆ in square brackets, an indication of the etymology of those vocables of whose etymology we are relatively certain. Although this is not intended to be an etymological dictionary, we have taken etymology into account in setting up the lemmata, in distinguishing homonyms from different meanings of a single word,
in determining the meanings of the words, and in determining the order of meanings of the words.
◆ in the same set of square brackets, following the etymology, if any, and separated from it by a slash (/), variant spellings of the vocable, in transliteration, preceded by the sign "cf."
◆ the attested meanings of the word in Old Marathi, each meaning given both in (modern) Marathi and in English.9 Different meanings of a single entry word are distinguished from one another by the use of numbers in serial order. The meanings are given in logical, and not necessarily chronological, sequence. Where appropriate, the label "met." is used to indicate a metaphorical meaning.
◆ occasionally, the label "(M.)" preceding a meaning, indicating that the word has a technical sense in Mahānubhāva literature. In addition, words or meanings that we believe to be confined to a single region or a single social stratum, or to be used exclusively or primarily by either men or women, are so marked.
◆ occasionally, in parentheses, preceding our definitions, a definition found in a traditional commentary or glossary.
◆ occasionally, in parentheses, following our definitions, the meaning given by a major, accepted authority with whose definition ours disagrees. These references take the form "But X," followed by the meaning proposed by the authority X.
◆ after each meaning, a citation or citations illustrating the use of the word in that meaning in Old Marathi sources.10 In cases where we have found only one example of the use of a word, we have given that passage. In cases where there are more citations to choose from, the illustrative citations given under a single meaning have been arranged chronologically, except that the citations from inscriptions are grouped together preceding the citations from literary sources.11 The citations include, where possible, the earliest occurrence of the word in Old Marathi. The citations have also been chosen in such a way as to illustrate the types of source material (inscriptions, literary prose, and verse; biography and philosophy; aphorisms and parables) in which the word is found. In citing examples of a verb, we have tried to illustrate as many forms of the verb as possible.
◆ occasionally, an idiom consisting of more than one word. Such an idiom is listed as a subentry under one of the words, generally under the relevant verb. The subentry includes the idiom in devanāgarī and roman script, an indication of the meaning in modern Marathi and in English, and one or more illustrative citations.
Lexicological Material for Old Marathi
As compared with Sanskrit, Pali, and even the Prakrits, the traditional lexicological material for a dictionary of Old Marathi is scanty. It is true, of course, that a canonical work like the Mahānubhāvas' Sūtrapāṭha has voluminous commentaries, and that a work like the Jñāneśvarī, which is the magnum opus for the Vārakarī cult, has numerous annotations bearing on its vocabulary. Although these commentaries and annotations do help the lexicographer, they do so only to a limited extent.
The lexicological and lexicographical material for compiling a dictionary of Old Marathi can be broadly categorized as follows:
1. The Ṭīpa or Ṭīpa-granthas on the seven major poetical works of the Mahānubhāva sect;
2. The Ṭīpaṇas or Paribhāṣās of the Jñāneśvarī;
3. Commentaries on the Mahānubhāva scriptures Sūtrapāṭha and Dṛṣṭāntapāṭha.
4. Dictionaries and word-indexes of the Jñāneśvarī and the Amṛtānubhāva;
5. Glossaries provided at the end of some edited texts;
6. Indices verborum of such works as the Corpus of Old Marathi Inscriptions (PMKL);
7. Lexicons such as the Bhāṣāprakāśa; and
8. Marathi dictionaries such as Molesworth's and the Mahārāṣṭra Śabdakośa.
In the following paragraphs, we comment on each of these types of material in turn.
1. The earliest Marathi glossaries come from the Mahānubhāva sect; they are known as Ṭīpa or Ṭīpa-grantha. The first Ṭīpa was written by Malle Coryācaka. It gives the meanings of some words from three of the sect's seven major poetical works (sātī grantha), Uddhavagītā, Jñānaprabodha, and Ṛddhipuravarṇana. Since it is very primary in nature, this Ṭīpa is known as the Ṭīpa of prathama śodhanī, "first search." It gives the meanings of words without any reference to the verses in which they occur. The Ṭīpa of the second śodhanī, prepared by Harirāj Pusadekar, is much longer and gives the meanings of words from all seven of the poetical works. It was followed by the Ṭīpa of the third
and last śodhanī, which was prepared by Dattarāj Marāṭhe in the 15th century. This Ṭīpa contains fully developed glossaries of all seven works. Thus, these three Ṭīpa-granthas mark three stages in the development of Marathi lexicography. Even in the final form, however, a Ṭīpa is basically annotative in nature.
As an example, let us examine the Ṭīpa on Ṛddhipuravarṇana (ṚV.). It displays the following characteristics:
◆ It is the product of industrious work. This can be seen, for instance, in the completeness of the lists given in defining such traditional terms as aṣṭaloha, the four pramāṇas, the six rasas, and the six stages of existence.
◆ It is the product of deep scholarship. This is shown, for example, in the interpretation of double meanings of words like Guṇḍama Rāüḷa (ṚV. 371), śleṣa (ṚV. 427), and maḷavaṭā (ṚV. 470).
◆ In places it gives the appearance of being based on a comparative study of different texts. For example, it explains the word āṇikīteṃ by referring to the parable (dṛṣṭānta) of a mother who has many children in DṛP. 98, the word mokṣa-upāya by referring to the parable of a cow tied to a pole in DṛP. 19, and the phrase jātyandhācā karasparśa by referring to the parable of the elephant and the blind men in DṛP. 43.
◆ Sometimes it distinguishes between the sāhityārtha and the siddhāntārtha, the literary and philosophical meanings of words. For example, the words mukta, vejheṃ, and guṇa in ṚV. 193 have double meanings, one literary and the other philosophical-metaphorical, which the Ṭīpa explains at length.
◆ In many places it explains the text's allusions to mythological stories—for example, references to King Dilīpa (ṚV. 1), Agasti (ṚV. 10), Gautamī (ṚV. 240), and Upamanyu (ṚV. 386).
◆ Because the ṚV. refers to the deeds of Govindaprabhu in Ṛddhipur, there are many allusions to local places, persons, and incidents. The fifteenth-century author of the Ṭīpa was conversant with these allusions, but they are unfamiliar to readers who live in the twentieth century and far away from Ṛddhipur. The Ṭīpa's explanations help modern readers to understand references to Bāïdev's cherries (ṚV. 146), Govindaprabhu's serving sugar to Ābāïseṃ (ṚV. 453), his calling Ābāïseṃ by the name "Khoḍī" (ṚV. 454), Ekāïseṃ's chapatis (ṚV. 508), the porridge Dhāno made (ṚV. 533), and so forth.
◆ Some interpretations in the Ṭīpa seem sectarian and unrealistic. The word satya, for example, in ṚV. 467, means simply "truth." But the Ṭīpa defines it as "our master" (āmace gosāvī). This tendency to read sectarian meanings into the text is especially evident when the Ṭīpa tries to give more than one meaning of a word or words, as at ṚV. 183, 202, 239, 267, 576, 602, and 625.
◆ Sometimes the author of the Ṭīpa takes pleasure in defining words according to his imagination. He gives the word cakravāha ("wheel-bearer") in ṚV. 291, for example, four meanings: 1) the god Viṣṇu (because he holds a disk); 2) the god Brahmā (because he creates ghaṭas); 3) Parameśvara, or the Supreme God (because he bears the śakti-cakra); and 4) a potter who has a potter's wheel.
◆ Some distinctions among words and meanings are finely drawn. The Ṭīpa distinguishes, for example, between pāpa (sin), which it says is kārmika, and pramāda, which it calls daivika. Similarly, in commenting on ṚV. 568, it distinguishes among the words nābhī, bembī, and sembī. All of these words mean "navel" but, according to the Ṭīpa, a nābhī is deep, a bembī is flat, and a sembī protrudes.
◆ The Ṭīpa identifies some regional words as such. For example, dahī in ṚV. 79 is identified as a Koṅkaṇī word, and the Ṭīpa calls a series of words in ṚV. 68 "khāndeśīceṃ sāhitya," Khāndeśī vocabulary. On the other hand, in glossing the word deva in ṚV. 425 as deva palheṃ, the Ṭīpa fails to note that palheṃ is (and presumably was) a Varhāḍī word not commonly known outside of Vidarbha.
◆ The Ṭīpa also identifies as such the professional terminology of a khistī or money-lender (ṚV. 65), of a meṭakārī or watchman (ṚV. 93), of a ghumārī or sorcerer (ṚV. 403), and of a rāhāṇa or possessed person (ṚV. 408).
◆ A few definitions consist of etymologies or plays on words. The definition of vihaṅgama (ṚV. 76) as "vihaṃ gacchatīti vihaṅgama" is of the first type, and that of nemasta (RV. 12) as "nemācāṃ ṭhāïṃ asta" belongs to the second. A few of the definitions show the author of the Ṭīpa to be a pseudo-pedant: for instance, he explains the word rāüḷa in ṚV. 631 as composed of rā, standing for jñāne (knowledge), and uḷa, standing for utkarṣe (abundance).
◆ Sometimes one difficult word is used to define another. For instance, ujarīyā in ṚV. 43 is glossed as ujrambhī, khoḷā in ṚV. 382 as galagatī, and bhūṣana in 398 as sille. Although these glosses may have been understandable at the time the Ṭīpa was composed, they are incomprehensible today.
Finally, the following passage illustrates the basically annotative nature of the Ṭīpa. The passage explicates ṚV. 51, a verse that describes the importance of the Mahānubhāvas' principal holy place, Ṛddhipur:
उत्तरवेठ = उतारपेठ: वोळगवट = एकवट होउनि ओळगत: संश्रूतीस = संसारासि: ताठा = द्रव्य हाती न लगे: आणि ताठुनि राहे: आणि वज्रलेपी = द्रव्य नीक्षेपीति: तेथे पाषाणावर वज्रलीपी लीहुनी: चौं कोनटा च्यार भुतें ठवीलीं: तरि तें वज्रवत जालें: तत्सादृस्यें जाणतां तें द्रव्य काढील: नाहीं तरि वज्रवत ठाकौनि राहील: यथा आंकुलनेरी संन्यासी: तैसें रूद्धपूर ५१:
The explanation of the word vajralepī in this passage seems to be purely imaginary.
Despite being deficient in some respects as lexicographical tools, the Mahānubhāva Ṭīpa-granthas laid the foundations of Marathi lexicography. It must have been these Ṭīpa-granthas that stimulated early scholars of the Jñāneśvarī to prepare similar glossaries of it. All extant glosses of the Jñāneśvarī are based on Ekanātha's edition, which was completed in A.D. 1584, about a century later than the Mahānubhāva Ṭīpa-granthas.
2. The Jñāneśvarī is Marathi glossarists' favourite work. Glosses of the Jñāneśvarī with titles like Jñāneśvarī Paribhāṣā, Jñāneśvarī Śabda-Paryāya and Jñāneśvarī Ṭīpaṇa are found in a number of different manuscript libraries, including the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.12 The only published glosses of the Jñāneśvarī are: 1) Jñāneśvarīcī Paribhāṣā, edited by R. S. Gondhalekar (2nd edition, 1890), and 2) Jñāneśvarī Ṭīpaṇa, compiled by Jagannāth Bāḷkṛṣṇa Ugāükar and edited by M. S. Kanade and S. B. Kulkarni (1968). Whereas the other glosses follow the text of the Jñāneśvarī chapter by chapter, this last one is arranged, broadly speaking, alphabetically.
3. The Mahānubhāvas' principal scripture, the Sūtrapāṭha, Kesobāsa's anthology of the sayings (or "sūtras") of Cakradhara, has been the subject of numerous commentaries. There are commentaries called- sthaḷa on each of three major sections of the text: Ācārasthaḷa on the "Ācāra" section, Vicārasthaḷa on the "Vicāra" section, and Lakṣaṇasthaḷa on the first nine chapters of the text. Siddhānte Haribāsa and Gujara Śivabāsa compiled these commentaries, which are collectively called "Tinhī Sthaḷa" ("The Three Sthaḷas"), in the early fifteenth century (Raeside 1960: 501).
Later Mahānubhāva authors composed extensive sub-commentaries on these texts; the sub-commentaries are called -banda. In the introduction to his edition of Lakṣaṇabanda, for example, Kolte lists ten other Lakṣaṇabandas besides the one he has edited, which was composed by the early-eighteenth-century commentator Dattarāj Marāṭhe (Auraṅgābād: Rāüḷa Prakāśana, 1985). In addition to this Lakṣaṇabanda, Kolte has also published the eighteenth-century Vicārabanda by Muni Avadhūta Vāïndeśkar (Auraṅgābād: Rāüḷa Prakāśana, 1989) and an Ācārabanda by the mid-seventeenth-century commentator Viśvanāthabāsa Bīḍakara (Malkāpūr: Aruṇa Prakāśana, 1982). The same Viśvanāthabāsa Bīḍakara also composed Dṛṣṭāntasthaḷa, a commentary on the Dṛṣṭāntapāṭha, the collection of Cakradhara's parables; as far as we know, this commentary has not yet been published.
Commentaries of the -sthaḷa type are closer to simple glosses than the -banda commentaries, each of which includes its corresponding -sthaḷa along with lengthy discussions of the sūtra in question. Even the -sthaḷa commentaries, however, take into account the views of at least twenty-two earlier authorities in interpreting the sūtras. Of the several other types of commentaries on the Sūtrapāṭha, two that have been published concentrate on explaining the contexts in which Cakradhara is understood to have uttered the various sūtras. These two commentaries are Paṃ. Bhīṣmācārya Saṅkalita Niruktaśeṣa (probably from the sixteenth century), which has been edited by Y. K. Deshpande (Nāgpūr: Vidarbha Saṃśodhana Maṇḍaḷa, 1961), and Prakaraṇavaśa, a text that may be much earlier,13 which has been published by M. K. Panjabi (Amrāvatī, 1968).
4. As regards the lexicons of the Jñāneśvarī, the earliest, by A. G. Devasthali (1874), is an elementary one. Serious attempts at preparing full-fledged dictionaries of the Jñāneśvarī are seen only in the case of S. N. Bhave's Śrī Jñāneśvarīcā Śabdārtha-kośa (1951) and R. N. Velingkar's Jñāneśvarīce Śabda-Bhāṇḍāra (1959). In addition, in the published version of his doctoral thesis on "Linguistic Peculiarities of Jñāneśvarī" (1953), M. G. Panse added an etymological index to the fifth chapter of the Jñāneśvarī and an index verborum of the whole text. A. R. Nadkarni's Jñāneśvarītīla Śabdāñcā
Koṅkaṇī Bolīta Śodha (1981), though not a formal lexicon, gives an alphabetical gloss of some obsolete words from the Jñāneśvarī that are commonly used in Koṅkaṇī.
5. Exhaustive glossaries are provided to the editions of the Jñāneśvarī by Rajvade, Madgavkar, Dandekar, and others. Kolte's editions of Mahānubhāva texts like the Līḷācaritra, Govindaprabhucaritra, and the major poetical works, as well as his edition of Pañcopākhyāna, include excellent glossaries. The glossary at the end of K. P. Kulkarni's edition of Vivekasindhu is partially etymological, and the one in Feldhaus's edition of the Sūtrapāṭha is selective. The glossary given at the end of Pathan's edition of Ukhāharaṇa has the form of an index verborum, but it is not complete.
6. An index verborum in the proper sense of the term is found in Panse's work on the Jñāneśvarī, mentioned above; in Tulpule's Prācīna Marāṭhī Korīva Lekha (1963); in S. K. Sathe's Anubhavāmṛtācā Pada- sandarbha-kośa (1989), a work that consists of a word- list of the Amṛtānubhava, giving all occurrences of each word; and in the word-index and glossary of the Mahānubhāva sātī grantha in M. A. Diwan's unpublished doctoral thesis from Śivājī University, "Mahānubhāvīya Sātī Kāvyagranthāñcī Śabdasūcī āṇī tyāntīla Prācīna Śabdāñcā Rūpārthavedha" (1984).
7. Bhāṣāprakāśa, by Rāmakavi of Thanjavur (c. 1700), is a versified lexicon of the Marathi language, prepared for the use of immigrants from Maharashtra to Tamilnadu. According to its author, this text is based on works like the Jñāneśvarī (jñāneśvaryādikādhāreṃ vadatoṃ, 1.12); it contains about five hundred words from the Jñāneśvarī. Another lexicon from Thanjavur bears the title Akārādi Prākṛta Bhāṣecā Nighaṇṭu; it is attributed to Kāḷerāv Appā and dates to about the same time as Bhāṣāprakāśa. The Akārādi Prākṛta Bhāṣecā Nighaṇṭu has the form of a regular dictionary, with irregular alphabetization. Not only does it contain a number of words from the Jñāneśvarī, it also sometimes uses the Jñāneśvarī's terminology in its definitions. For example, it defines mākaḍa ("monkey") as pālekhāïra ("grass eater," Jñā. 11.23), avaḍatā as paḍiyanta (compare paḍhiyantā in Jñā. 9.18, 12.158, etc.), jāḷeṃ as vāghura (compare vāgura in Jñā. 7.92 and 4.201), and caḍhaṇe as veṅghaṇe (Jñā. 15.460). This practice of defining later vocables in the terms of a much earlier work like the Jñāneśvarī is a peculiarity of Marathi lexicons prepared in Thanjavur.
8. The work carried out so far in the field of Old Marathi lexicography deals either with Mahānubhāva literature or with the Jñāneśvarī. Until now, there has not been any work that takes into consideration both of these sources along with the inscriptions from the Old Marathi period. There have been some comparative studies of a few individual words, such as suravāḍa or śleṣa. However, on the whole, work on Mahānubhāva literature, the Jñāneśvarī, and the inscriptions has been compartmentalized. Our dictionary should rectify the situation to some extent by taking into consideration not only all of these texts but also the Vārakarī poet-saints' Gāthās, or collections of abhaṅgas, which until now have remained totally unglossed.
R. B. Godbole's Haṃsakośa (1863) was the first attempt to compile a dictionary of classical Marathi. It was compiled with the intention of explaining select difficult words found in such widely-read medieval Marathi poetical works as Vivekasindhu, Jñāneśvarī, Amṛtānubhava, Ekanāthī Bhāgavata, Dāsabodha, Rāmavijaya, Śivalīḷāmṛta, and so on. The Haṃsakośa thus covers a long period, about five hundred years, in the history of the Marathi language, and only a few works scattered throughout that period. The Haṃsakośa cannot, therefore, be called a dictionary of Old Marathi, as it concerns itself with Middle Marathi as well. It is very elementary and could be described as a beginning in the field of Marathi lexicography.
As stated earlier, Molesworth's Marathi-English Dictionary (1831; 1857) is primarily concerned with modern (nineteenth-century) Marathi. It does include some words from the Jñāneśvarī, but they are very few. Like R. B. Godbole, Molesworth and his associates did not have access to the literary works of the Mahānubhāva sect, as these works were still locked up in the Mahānubhāvas' coded scripts. The Mahārāṣṭra Śabdakośa (1932-1938) does pay some attention to Mahānubhāva literature, but it too is primarily interested in modern Marathi. K. P. Kulkarni's Marāṭhī Vyutpatti Kośa (1964) is an attempt to compile an etymological dictionary of Marathi; for this purpose, the author had to consider Old Marathi words from a number of different sources. However, as Katre rightly observed, it is only "the starting point of new studies in Marathi Linguistics."14
Thus, although there is no single work that meets the need for a dictionary of Old Marathi, there are a number of different kinds of efforts that can be fruitfully utilised for preparing one.
It is unlikely that early Marathi had any rules of orthography. Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa were written in accord with rules of phonetic change that were laid down by Hemacandra and other grammarians of Prakrit. Marathi, which was born as a spoken, not a literary language, had no need of such rules for writing. The earliest allusion to Marathi, in the eighth century, refers to its spoken character. It describes a Marahaṭṭā, a native of Maharashtra, as one who speaks words like "diṇṇale" and "gahille."15 The language of such a person, Marathi, attained literary status only with the creation of the Jñāneśvarī (A.D. 1290).
The early manuscripts of the Jñāneśvarī exhibit the chaotic spellings of the scribes. The manuscript that Rajvade edited and claimed was the earliest is a good example of riotous orthographic variation. The codified script in which the early Mahānubhāva writings were preserved guarded them to some extent from scribal innovation; however, here too the absence of rules is evident. The inscriptions are the most unruly, as they were engraved by uneducated artisans who did their job without paying heed to any rules of writing whatsoever. As the lack of orthographic standardization is of considerable significance for organizing a dictionary of Old Marathi, we sketch below some of the salient characteristics of Old Marathi orthography and indicate how we have dealt with them in this dictionary:
1. The phenomena of ya-śruti and va-śruti, or the writing of ya or va in place of a vowel that is left over when an intervocalic consonant has been lost, is common—although not regular—in Old Marathi. There are, for example, two forms, rāya and rāva, both derived from the Sanskrit word rājan. Because we consider these to be two spellings of the same word, we have given an entry under each form and have cross-referenced them to each other.
2. The palatal vowel e is often written ye, and the labial vowel o is often written vo. Thus, the word eka, for example, is also written yeka, and okhada is also written vokhada. These variant spellings are also given separate entries that are cross-referenced to each other.
3. As opposed to Prakrit, Marathi generally has no retroflex ṇ in the initial position of a word.16 Marathi does distinguish between retroflex ṇ and dental n in the medial and final positions of a word, but it does so in what appears to be a haphazard manner. In theory, in the medial position, Old Indo-Aryan (OI-A) intervocalic -n- became -ṇ- in Middle Indo-Aryan (MI-A) and remained so in Old Marathi (OM): for example, kāhāṇī (
kahaṇiā kathanikā). As opposed to this, MI-A -ṇṇ-, from whatever source, generally became -n- in OM: for example, vānaṇe ( vaṇṇaai varṇayati). However, the Old Marathi manuscripts do not follow these rules uniformly. In fact, -ṇ- and -n- appear to be interchanged at the will of the scribe. Some manuscripts show a definite preference for either -ṇ- or -n-. The manuscript of the Ṛddhipura Māhātmya, for instance, strongly prefers the dental -n-.17 In this dictionary, although we have standardized the use of these two nasals to some extent in the illustrative citations, we have given entries, with cross references, for as many different spellings as we have found in the editions we have used.18
4. Like retroflex ṇ, retroflex ḷ generally does not appear in the initial position in OM,19 and there is a good deal of variation between retroflex -ḷ- and liquid -l- in the medial position. As a rule, OI-A intervocalic -l- changes to -ḷ- in OM. However, the Jñāneśvarī manuscript Rajvade used did not have -ḷ- in places where it would be expected. On the theory that this was a peculiarity of the scribe, the editors of the revised edition of the Jñāneśvarī have reinstated the -ḷ-. That there was a clear distinction between the two sounds -l- and -ḷ- is shown by the fact that the Mahānubhāva codified script gives them two different code symbols. In this dictionary, we have maintained the distinction, standardizing the spelling to some extent in the illustrative citations, but giving entries, with cross references, for as many different spellings as we have found in the editions we have used.
5. There is no uniformity in the writing of short and long vowels in OM, although there seems to be some preference for short ones. Here, we have tried to reflect the variety in our sources as far as possible, and have again given entries, with cross references, for as many different spellings as we have found.
6. OM almost always doubles dental t in a consonant cluster whose first member is -r-: for example, kīrttana, kīrtti, and mūrtta. We have retained this spelling in the dictionary wherever it is found in our sources.
7. Old Marathi writing makes no distinction between an anusvāra and a nasalized vowel. It uses the anusvāra for all kinds of nasal sounds, even before or instead of nasal consonants: for example, अंन (aṃna) for
अन्न (anna), and दां (dāṃ) for दाम (dāma). Although the use of a parasavarṇa is extremely rare and that of the anusvāra almost uniform, the original phonetic value remains intact. In this dictionary, we have retained the anusvāras in the devanāgarī spelling of entry and other words, but in transliterating the entry words into roman script we have attempted to distinguish between a nasal consonant and the nasalization of a vowel. We have transliterated an anusvāra that we believe represents a nasal consonant with the nasal corresponding to the consonant that follows it. Where we believe that an anusvāra simply represents a nasalization of a vowel, we have transliterated the anusvāra by placing a tilde over the vowel.
8. Abbreviations are used in OM inscriptions20 and in some manuscripts written in Mahānubhāva codified script. For example, inscriptions use ga for gadyāṇa, tu-vau for tulasī-vausa, da for datta, de for deya, ni for nivartana, and vadi and sudi for vadya dina and śuddha dina respectively.21 In Mahānubhāva manuscripts written in the code called sakaḷa lipī, अ is sometimes written for avatāra, कें for bījeṃ keleṃ, न्य for caitanya, ल for sakaḷa, स्व for svarūpa, and so forth. The Mahānubhāva abbreviations are preceded and followed by colons.22 Other OM literary texts, including the Jñāneśvarī and the Gāthās of the Vārakarī poet-saints, do not use abbreviations. In this dictionary, we have given independent entries for the abbreviations used in inscriptions, but not for the Mahānubhāva abbreviations.
9. Sometimes the vowel ṛ is written as the consonant r and vice versa: for example, krupā is sometimes written for kṛpā, or candṛ for candra. We have standardized these spellings to some extent in the illustrative citations, but we have given entries, with cross references, for these and other spellings found in the editions we have used.
10. The sibilant ṣ is very often written as kh: for example, purukha is written instead of puruṣa. Here we have followed the spelling in our sources exactly, both in entries and in illustrative citations.
11. When the negative particle na precedes a verb, it often combines with it and takes on the vowel of the verb's initial syllable. For example, nedakhe is written for na dekhe. We have given several of these forms as separate entries.
12. Punctuation in OM consists of a colon in the case of all Mahānubhāva works, and of one or two vertical lines in the case of other literary works, whether prose or poetry. Editors of the texts have added commas, quotation marks, and other punctuation; in the illustrative citations, we have retained most of this punctuation, and in some cases added our own, in order to make the citations as clear as possible.
The Origin of Marathi
That Marathi was the language of Maharashtra in the thirteenth century is clear from the Āmbe stone inscription, dated A.D. 1228-1229, which gives details of a grant made to the temple of the god Sakaleśvara in what it calls "Mahārāṣṭra-bhāṣā." That this language was called Marhāṭī is seen from references to it in such OM works as the Līḷācaritra and the Jñāneśvarī. From other references, it is clear that the language was also called Deśī. Kolte traces the source of this second name to Apabhraṃśa literature, which uses the term "deśī bhāṣā" to denote Apabhraṃśa.23 As the learned Apabhraṃśa scholar Hiralal Jain observes, "It is noteworthy that the poets themselves have called their language Deshi Bhasha and have never liked to use the term Apabhramsa for their language, while grammarians have called it invariably by the latter name."24 It is thus likely that the Marathi poets followed the authors of literary works in Apabhraṃśa and called Marathi by the name Deśī.
Scholars are divided on the issue of the origin of the Marathi language. The general understanding is that Marathi was derived from Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit, which in turn developed from Sanskrit. J. Beames opposed this view for the first time, pointing out that "Mahārāṣṭrī and Marāṭhī have little in common except the name."25 According to Hoernle, the Indian grammarians misinterpreted the word "Mahārāṣṭra" as used by the Prakrit grammarian Vararuci and connected it with the language of the region. Hoernle understood the word "Mahārāṣṭra" to mean "a large nation," and not a specific region as we understand it today. This literal interpretation of the term caused him to deny any connection between the language of Maharashtra and Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit.26
Pischel connected the two languages, but he did so by finding them both to be derived from a common source, Māhārāṣṭra Apabhraṃśa: "there was one Māhārāṣṭra Apabhraṃśa, whence has developed the modern Marāṭhī, in addition to Mahārāṣṭra-Prākrit, i.e. Māhārāṣṭrī of the grammarians, as well as Māgadha-Apabhraṃśa."27 Grierson was originally opposed to connecting
Marathi with Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit;28 however, on the completion of his Linguistic Survey of India, he agreed that the two languages share a common source, Māhārāṣṭra Apabhraṃśa. He found "points of agreement [that] cannot fail to add strength to the conclusion that Māhārāshtrī Prakrit was based on the vernacular of the Marāṭhā country, which is the direct source from which modern Marāṭhī is derived."29 The strongest exponent of this position was Sten Konow. In his article on "Mahārāṣṭrī and Marāṭhī," he tried to prove the connection between the two languages on the basis of their phonology and morphology. Arguing that the geographical extension of Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit was the same as that of Marathi and that Hāla's Sattasaī, the earliest work in Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit, was written in Paithan, a place that later became the centre of Marathi literature, Konow states:30
Marathi occupies the same position within modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars as Mahārāṣṭrī among the Prakrits. The arguments adduced against the derivation of both languages from the same old vernacular have not proved valid and we will adhere to the Indian tradition that Mahārāṣṭrī was based on the old vernacular of the Maratha country.
In fact, there is a relationship of descent between Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit and Marathi, but the relationship is not direct. There is a connecting link between them: Apabhraṃśa. Bhandarkar was the first scholar to notice this. It is surprising that he could sense a link like this as early as 1877, when Apabhraṃśa literature had not yet been made available and when the only tool he had was Hemacandra's grammar of Apabhraṃśa. In this text he found the link: "The dialect called the Apabhraṃśa by the grammarians presents Indian speech in a further stage of decay and occupies a middle position between these Prakrits and the modern vernaculars to some of which...it bears striking resemblances."31 In the absence of any source material written in Apabhraṃśa, Bhandarkar could not substantiate his view, but the very fact that he could postulate a connecting link between Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit and Marathi is a mark of his genius in the field of linguistics.
By now, fortunately, through the work of such scholars as Jacobi, Dalal, Gune, Modi, Vaidya, and Hiralal Jain, some literary works written in Apabhraṃśa have become available. Hermann Jacobi made the start when he published the Bhavisayattakahā of Dhanapal in A.D. 1918. Later, P. L. Vaidya and Hiralal Jain made major contributions by bringing out scholarly editions of the Mahāpurāṇa and of the biographical works Ṇāyakumāracariu and Jasaharacariu. These works are important from the point of view of Marathi, as they were written in Mānyakheṭa (modern Mālkheḍ), the capital of the later Rāṣṭrakūṭas, which lies on the border of Maharashtra and Karnataka. The author of these works was Puṣpadanta, who, scholars believe, came from the Varhāḍa region of Maharashtra. Hiralal Jain, the editor of the Jasaharacariu, called Western Apabhraṃśa "the immediate forerunner of at least three important vernaculars, Hindi, Gujarati and Marathi."32
It is generally believed that the Prakrits disappeared from the scene by about the fifth century, after giving birth to their respective Apabhraṃśas. Each of the four Prakrits—Mahārāṣṭrī, Śaurasenī, Māgadhī, and Paiśācī—developed its own Apabhraṃśa, and the subtypes of Apabhraṃśa numbered twenty-seven. Of these, only three are prominent: Vrācaḍa, Nāgara, and Upanāgara. As the language of such works as the Mahāpurāṇa was closer to the Nāgara type of Apabhraṃśa than to the others, it appears that Nāgara was the standard type.
Kolte argues that Marathi is derived from the Nāgara type of Apabhraṃśa. He cites passages such as the following from Old Marathi texts in which the word "nāgara" seems to be a synonym of "marāṭhī":33
तो कृष्णार्जुन संवादु । नागरिं बोलिं विशदु सांघों दाउं बंधु । वोवियेचा Jñā. 11.1149
However, Kolte's argument is only a conjecture based on the similarity of the use of the word nāgara, and no definite conclusion can be drawn about which subtype of Apabhraṃśa Marathi derives from. The best that can be said, then, is that Marathi originated from a type of Apabhraṃśa that was current in Maharashtra in the fifth century.
This Apabhraṃśa was used until the tenth century in works written by Jaina poets, and for this reason it has also been called Jaina Mahārāṣṭrī. Because many of the Jaina poets who used this language came to Maharashtra from Magadha, their language contains some elements of Ardhamāgadhī as well. However, this does not mean that Marathi is derived from Ardhamāgadhī. Because Puṣpadanta lived in Mānyakheṭa, in Maharashtra, and came from the Varhāḍa region, also in Maharashtra, he most probably spoke Marathi; the Apabhraṃśa
in which he wrote was already a dead language in his time. Whatever the original language of Puṣpadanta and the other Jaina authors, the language they used as their medium of literary expression was definitely an Apabhraṃśa of the Prakrit that had been common in Maharashtra. Hiralal Jain's statement in this connection is worthy of consideration:34
जैन भंडारों की सूचियों में इस भाषा के ग्रंथ प्रायः मागधी भाषा के नाम से दर्ज किये हुये मिलते है; किंतु यह भाषा न तो मागधी है और न अन्य शौरसेनी आदि प्राचीन प्राकृत । किंतु इन प्राकृतों ने प्रचलित देशी भाषाओं के पूर्व जो रूप धारण किया था वही इन ग्रंथों में पाया जाता है । यह उनका विकसित या अपभ्रष्ट रूप है और इस से इस भाषा का नाम अपभ्रंश या अवहट्टा पडा । १० वी ११ वी शताब्दि के लगभग यही भाषा समस्त उत्तर भारत में प्रचलित थी, किंतु देशभेद के अनुसार उसमें भेद थे ।
In part, the argument for the derivation of Marathi from Apabhraṃśa or Jaina Mahārāṣṭrī rests on similarities of vocabulary. In Yādavakālīna Marāṭhī Bhāṣā, Tulpule has demonstrated such similarities, and, in some cases, even direct borrowings, by showing the Old Marathi equivalents of nearly 200 words in the Apabhraṃśa poetical works Ṇāyakumāracariu and Jasaharacariu by the tenth-century author Puṣpadanta.35
Morphology is even more important than vocabulary for establishing a relationship between two languages. As Caldwell states, "Declensional and conjugational forms are the bones and sinews of language and retain for ages both their shape and their significance. Hence, comparative vocabulary is inferior to comparative grammar."36 Tulpule has shown elsewhere that most of the inheritances of Old Marathi in the fields of morphology, and also phonology, are from the Apabhraṃśa called Jaina Mahārāṣṭrī.37 In particular, the "oblique" case of Marathi can be traced back to similar forms in Apabhraṃśa.
Further evidence of a direct relationship of descent between Apabhraṃśa and Old Marathi can be found in a comparison of the meters used in the two languages. There are differences of opinion about the etymology of the Marathi term "ovī," the name of the most popular metre in Old Marathi, but Velankar has conclusively demonstrated that the Marathi ovī closely resembles the "kaḍavaka" of three-and-a-half stanzas of the Apabhraṃśa metre ṣaṭpadī.38 The only difference between the two is that while the ṣaṭpadī is exclusively literary, the ovī is both a literary and a folk metre. The Jñāneśvarī illustrates the ovī in its most excellent literary form, while examples of folk ovīs are found scattered in prose works like the Līḷācaritra and Smṛtisthaḷa. That the folk ovīs can be set to music is shown by what the Mānasollāsa says about the ovī: mahārāṣṭreṣu yoṣidbhiḥ ovī geyā tu kaṇḍane ("The women folk of Maharashtra sing ovīs while they pound grain"). Jñānadeva, the master of the literary ovī, says that the ovīs in his Jñāneśvarī are extremely beautiful whether or not they are set to music, just as mogarā flowers are extremely fragrant whether or not they are strung in a wreath (Jñā. 18.1719-20).
Comparative vocabulary, morphology, phonology, and metrics, then, demonstrate a direct relationship between Apabhraṃśa and Marathi. But this does not mean that Marathi was a further step in the process of corruption seen in the history of Old Indo-Aryan. Far from it. For, as Katre says:39
It is true, no doubt, that with the analysis of Apabhramsa, we...have sufficient material for evaluating the pre-New Indo-Aryan period from a linguistic point of view. But...like the Prakrit literature even this Apabhramsa literature is in a form which has become stylised and separated from the common currents of linguistic expression. In other words the Apabhramsa that we find in literature is as artificial as the literary Prakrits or classical Sanskrit and divorced...from the common expression of the man in the street.40 This is, however, not the case with the early New Indo-Aryan literature, and here we find for the first time the actually current sista expressions of New Indo-Aryan... Marathi, with its inherited forms, does not scorn the use of Sanskrit vocables, and the model found in its literary remains is true of the picture we can build of the speakers of that medium. And it is because of this free mixture of the inherited vocabulary and the learned borrowings from Sanskrit that the history of the language still continues uninterrupted. If this had not been the case, Marathi would have become as 'dead' a language as Prakrits or Apabhramsa or even the refined Sanskrit.
Marathi can be described, then, as a re-oriented form of its immediate predecessor, Apabhraṃśa, with a
number of borrowings from Sanskrit. The borrowings made it a real, living language. An understanding of the elements of OM vocabulary will make this point more clear.
Elements of Old Marathi Vocabulary
So far only two attempts have been made to analyse the elements of Marathi vocabulary. The first was made by V. G. Apte in the essay on the classification of Marathi words included in his Marāṭhī Śabdaratnākara (1922). Apte classified the vocabulary of Marathi into the following four categories:
1. Sanskrit or tatsama words;
2. tadbhava words, those derived from Sanskrit through Prakrit;
3. Deśī words; and
4. loan-words from other languages, such as Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Hindi, English, and Portuguese.
Apte's classification is rough and his attempt rather elementary.
A more thorough attempt is found in M. A. Karandikar's unpublished doctoral thesis on "Elements of Marathi Vocabulary" (1940). This work classifies the sources of Marathi words into the following categories: 1) Austro-Asiatic; 2) Vedic Sanskrit; 3) Sanskrit; 4) Pali; 5) Deśī; 6) Mahārāṣṭrī Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa; 7) Dravidian (Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil); 8) Persian; 9) Urdu; 10) Gujarati; 11) Bengali; 12) Nanda (?); 13) Hindi; 14) Portuguese; 15) English; 16) French, German, Dutch, Mexican(!), and Hebrew; 17) Chinese and Japanese; and 18) mūla, or aboriginal(?), Marathi. This classification is neither logical nor factual. For example, there are no direct borrowings in Marathi from the Austro-Asiatic (that is, pre-Aryan and pre-Dravidian) languages. Whatever element of Austro-Asiatic is to be found in Marathi has entered it through Sanskrit. The same can be said of Vedic Sanskrit, which has also lent words to Marathi only through classical Sanskrit. And, although Marathi may have borrowed a few words from such European languages as French, Portuguese, and English, and a few from the Tibeto-Chinese group, such words cannot be called "elements" of Marathi vocabulary.
The sources of Old Marathi vocabulary are in fact very clear. There are tatsama and tadbhava words belonging to the Indo-Aryan group; mainly Kannada words belonging to the Dravidian group; and Deśī (or Deśya) words, which may be called the aboriginal group. In addition, there are a few borrowings from Persian.
The fairly large number of words borrowed from Kannada owe their existence to the fluid common border between Maharashtra and Karnataka, and also to the cult of Viṭṭhala or Viṭhobā, which seems to have had its origin in Karnataka. Tulpule has discussed this question at length elsewhere, and has made a survey of the Kannada loan words in Old Marathi.41 However, scholars differ from one another greatly in their views on this rather unnecessarily sensitive issue.42 Some of them try to link every other Marathi word with some Kannada vocable, while others try to derive obvious Kannada borrowings from Sanskrit. An unbiased study would show that the number of Kannada loan words in Old Marathi does not exceed two hundred.
The first attested Kannada word in Marathi is "suttāle," meaning "a surrounding wall." This word is found in one of the earliest Marathi inscriptions, the one from Śravaṇabeḷgoḷa. This stone inscription, which was written in the early twelfth century, is located in the heart of Karnataka.43 The Mailaṅgī stone inscription of A.D. 1290, also located deep in Karnataka, tells us that the Kannada-speaking kings of the Hoysaḷa dynasty had established a school at Mailaṅgī for the teaching of four languages: Nāgara (Sanskrit), Kannada, Tigulu (Telugu), and Āre (Ārya or Marathi).44 The presence of these inscriptions in Karnataka indicates that linguistic boundaries were not well defined, and that there was a kind of linguistic fusion between Maharashtra and Karnataka.
While the Bhīmā river seems to have formed a weak dividing line, Paṇḍharī (modern Paṇḍharpūr), which was called Paṇḍarge in Kannada, became the centre of Viṭṭhala-bhakti and the meeting place of the cultures of these two regions. In fact, Paṇḍharpūr may well have been a bilingual place. One of the five old stone inscriptions that have been found there is written in Sanskrit and Kannada,45 the others in Marathi. The poet-saints of the Old Marathi period apply the attribute "Kānadā" to Viṭṭhala, the god of Paṇḍharpūr. Jñānadeva, for example, calls him "Kānaḍā Viṭṭhalu Karnāṭaku" (JñāGā. 20).
Deśī or Deśya words pose a long-standing problem that has been discussed by many scholars. What is a Deśī word? What does the term mean, and what is its extension? Hemacandra, the author of the Deśīnāmamālā, defines the term Deśī as follows (1.3-4):[page xxiv]
je lakkhaṇe ṇa siddhā ṇa pasiddhā sakkayāhihāṇesu/
ṇa ya gaüṇalakkhaṇāsattisaṃbhavā te iha ṇibaddhā//
desavisesapasiddhī bhaṇṇamāṇā aṇanantayā hunti/
tamhā aṇāïpāïapayaṭṭabhāsāvisesao desī//
This definition of Deśī words is too broad, almost all-inclusive. Hemacandra himself has not observed it meticulously in giving his list of Deśī words, in which he has included a number of tadbhava words and a few Dravidian words. Even some Arabic and Persian words have found a place in the Deśīnāmamālā.46 Under these circumstances, we must treat as Deśī only those words whose etymology is unknown. After considering all the arguments on various sides of the controversy over the meaning of the term Deśī, Venkata Ramanujaswami, the editor of the second edition of Pischel's Deśīnāmamālā, came to define the term as follows:47
We thus arrive at the following conception of the expression deśī. Many of them are of Sanskrit origin; but owing to the large amount of corruption they have undergone during the many centuries of their use, they do not conform to the phonetic laws recognised by the grammarians, or in other words, their connection with Sanskrit is obscured. Some others again may be of Indo-European though not of Sanskritic origin and may be found, with slight variations, in the spoken dialects of other Indo-European races. A small proportion of them are of non-Indo-European descent and may have been obtained from the language of the people who were inhabiting the country before the advent of the Aryans into it.
On the basis of the Deśīnāmamālā, some scholars have tried to make a survey of Deśī words in Marathi. But most scholars have tried to trace the Sanskrit origin of many so-called Deśī words.48 The etymological index given at the end of Bloch's work on Marathi contains about 350 words of Deśī origin. At the same time, however, he has shown the Sanskrit equivalents of most of these words. For example, he derives the Marathi word aghāḍā from both Deśī agghāḍa and Sanskrit āghāṭa. It is better to follow Vaidya's advice: "I would, therefore, call those words deśī that could not show even the remotest connection with genuine Sanskrit words and are exclusively found in Prakrit literature."49 Tulpule's Yādavakālīna Marāṭhī Bhāṣā50 lists about 150 Old Marathi words that can be found in the Deśīnāmamālā; however, many of these words too are of Sanskrit or Dravidian origin.
For a long time, scholars held that the Persian loan words in later Marathi were absent from Old Marathi. In fact, the absence of Persian words was supposed to be a criterion of the antiquity of a Marathi literary work. However, there are a few borrowings from Persian, and also Arabic, in Old Marathi, and even Hemacandra's Deśīnāmamālā includes some Persian and Arabic words. Ramanujaswami explains:51
In Hemacandra's deśī, a few recent borrowings from Persian and Arabic are also included, as they might have become current in the language of the country some centuries before his time. He is perfectly justified in doing so, as we have seen that deśī has come to mean not only the words current in the country but [those that] at the same time show no trace of connection with Sanskrit.
The presence of Persian and Arabic words in Old Marathi and even Deśī can be explained by the contact of Arab traders with the western coast of South India, as well as by the infiltration of some Sufi saints into the Deccan. The number of such words in Old Marathi is very small, but they are there. Rajvade's claim that there is not a single Persian word in the Jñāneśvarī manuscript he edited may or may not be correct, but we do find a few Persian and Arabic loan words in inscriptions and other literary works of this period. For instance, the words prosrāhi (< Arabic parvariśī), malika (< Arabic malik) and mijigiti (< Arabic masjid), which appear in inscriptions, are clearly of Persian and/or Arabic origin. So are the words peroja (< Persian firūjhā) and rukhavata (< Persian ruśvat), which occur in Narendra's Rukmiṇī Svayaṃvara, and the words sulatāna (< Arabic sultān) and turuka (< Persian turūk) in Smṛtisthaḷa. All told, we find in Old Marathi hardly a dozen loan words from Persian or Arabic.
Uniformity of Language in Old Marathi
The earliest reference to Maharashtra is found in the Eraṇ pillar inscription of Śakanṛpati Śrīdhara Varmā dated A.D. 365.52 There his army chief Satyanāga calls himself "māhārāṣṭra," meaning "Maharashtrian." The next reference occurs in the Aihoḷe stone inscription of A.D. 634. Here Pulakeśī II is described as the ruler of three subdivisions of Maharashtra ("trayāṇām mahārāṣṭrakāṇām adhipatiḥ").53 That Maharashtra was formed of different khaṇḍamaṇḍaḷas, or subregions, can be seen from the following passage from the Ācārapaddhati, a Mahānubhāva work belonging to the seventeenth century:54
देश भणिजे खंडमंडळ: जैसें फलेठाणापासौनि दक्षिणेसि : मऱ्हाठी भाष जेतुला ठाइं वर्ते तेतुलें एक मंडळ: तयासि उत्तरे बालेघाटाचा सेवट: ऐसें एक खंडमंडळ: मग उभे (उभय) गंगातीर तेंहि एक खंडमंडळ: आणि तयापासौनि मेघंकरघाट (मेहकर, जि. अकोला) तें एक खंडमंडळ: तयापासौनि आवघें वराड तें एक खंडमंडळ: परि आवघीं मिळौनि महाराष्ट्रचि बोलिजे: किंचित् किंचित् भाषेचा पालट: भणौनि खंडमंडळें भणावीं:
("Land" means region. For example, the area south of Phalṭaṇ, as far as the Marathi language is in use, is a region. The area north of that, up to Bāleghāṭ, is a region. Then the valley of the Godāvarī river is also a region. And from there to Meghaṅkar Ghāṭ is a region. Starting there, all of Varāḍ is a region. But all of them together are called Maharashtra. The language changes bit by bit, and so they are to be identified as subregions.)
This passage supports P. V. Kane's theory that Maharashtra was so called because it comprised many rāṣṭras, or regions.55
The language of all these different regions of Maharashtra was Marathi. Every language has its dialects, and Old Marathi cannot have been an exception. However, for Old Marathi it is not possible to demarcate the dialects on the basis of the source material we have. For the language of this material seems to be more or less uniform, without regard to the different regions in which it was produced. A map of the find-spots of Old Marathi inscriptions, for example (see the map in this volume), shows them scattered all over and even outside of Maharashtra, and yet their language is almost completely uniform.
As for the literary sources, most of them were written in a single region comprising the Godāvarī valley and Varāḍ (Varhāḍ, Vidarbha). Of the two most important literary sources, the Jñāneśvarī was written at Nevāse on the bank of the Pravarā, near the Godāvarī, and the Līḷācaritra was written at Ṛddhipur, in Varāḍ. The Koṅkaṇ, the coastal region of Maharashtra, which is fairly rich in stone inscriptions, has contributed nothing to the literary wealth of Old Marathi. Thus, the inscriptions are the only means of checking for the presence of a Koṅkaṇī dialect, and they do, indeed, contain a few words from a coastal vernacular. Otherwise—allowing, of course, for differences of subject matter and for differences between prose and poetry—all of the Old Marathi literature that we have is written in the same diction and the same style.
Despite this uniformity in the Old Marathi sources, we do get a few glimpses of the existence of dialects. In one incident in the life of Govindaprabhu (Go. 88; cf. LP. 585), he is given a dhiḍarẽ to eat. He says that it is not a dhiḍarẽ but an āhitā. The female disciple who has cooked the dish clears up the confusion by explaining that in the Gaṅgā—that is, Godāvarī—valley, from where she came, it is called a dhiḍarẽ, while in Varāḍ, the region to which he belongs, people call it an āhitā. This clearly indicates that there was a difference in vocabulary between the Marathi spoken in Varāḍ and that spoken in the region of the Godāvarī valley.
One of Cakradhar's aphorisms (SuVM. 132; AL. 148) also distinguishes these two regions from each other, contrasting the calculating nature of an old woman from the Godāvarī valley (gaṅgātīra) with the generosity of a prostitute from Varāḍ. According to Nāgadeva (SS. 246), Varāḍ was the māhera, the maternal home, for the Mahānubhāvas, as congenial for them as a young bride's maternal home is for her, while the Godāvarī valley was their in-laws' house, their sāsara, a place of suffering. This was so because Govindaprabhu belonged to Ṛddhipur, in Varāḍ, while Cakradhara was assassinated at Belopur, in the Godāvarī valley.
1. In addition to Marathi works produced up to 1350, a few later works, such as Sahyādrivarṇana (1353), Jñānaprabodha (c. 1418), and Ṛddhipuravarṇana (c. 1418), have been included in the source material of this dictionary. These works belong to the sātī grantha, the group of seven major poetical works, of the Mahānubhāva sect; they are written in the same style and use the same vocabulary as the other texts in the group. In fact, the earliest poetical work in this septette, Narendra's Rukmiṇī Svayaṃvara, set a linguistic pattern that Narendra's successors followed extremely closely. In addition, a couple of undated works, Ukhāharaṇa and Ṛddhipura Māhātmya, have been included in the source material for similar reasons.
2. The Kalānidhi was first introduced to Marathi readers by S. S. Khanvelkar (see Proceedings and Transactions of the All India Oriental Conference, 13th Session, Nagpur University, October, 1946). A. K. Priyolkar published its first sixteen pages in the Marāṭhī Saṃśodhana Patrikā 13.1 (1965), with a number of printing errors. The text of this work is extremely corrupt, and in many places it is uninterpretable.
3. The text of the Jñāneśvarī followed here is the one held to be the oldest. It was edited by V. K. Rajvade in 1909 and revised by a committee appointed by the Government of Maharashtra in 1960. Readings from other editions of the Jñāneśvarī have also been taken into consideration when necessary.
4. The others are Śiśupāḷavadha (1312) and Uddhavagītā (1313) by Bhāskara, Vacchaharaṇa by Dāmodara Paṇḍita (c. 1316), Sahyādrivarṇana by Ravaḷobāsa (1353), Jñānaprabodha by Viśvanātha (c. 1418), and Ṛddhipuravarṇana by Nārāyaṇabāsa (c. 1418).
5. See note 3, above.
6. I. M. P. Raeside, "The Mahānubhāva sakaḷa lipī," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 33 (1970), pp. 328-34.
7. V. B. Kolte, Introduction to Ravaḷobāsa-Kṛta Sahyādri-Varṇana (Puṇe: Puṇe Vidyāpīṭha, 1964), pp. 9-26.
8. The written forms of kha and rava look alike in devanāgarī, but are represented by different akṣaras in the sakaḷa lipī code.
9. Despite our best efforts, there remain some words for which we have not even been able to give a reasonable guess at a meaning: अखुमराणा, आवचौकडी, उभगडी, ओणा, ओना, काढी, कुरुपांग, खोरणा, गिरण, चुथें चौकटी, जाळें, तुपसांत, देवद्रणि, धर्महळ, धेंडेखांडी, पुलिता, भातवंकुडु, मवसथनि, माजणि, मांस्हण, लालोरी, वारिधारी, वोर, वोला, सचोपणुपण, सिरकवळी, and सीना..
10. Despite our best efforts and greatest care, there are a few illustrative citations for which we can no longer find the references. These citations occur in the following entries: अतिकाळ, उटंगर, उभेयां घालणे, धजास्तंभ, लपणी, विधोलणे, राड, शोधणुक, सरिस,, and सरी.
11. Another exception is that citations from the Gāthā of Nāmadeva have been placed near the end, even though Nāmadeva is supposed to have been a contemporary of Jñānadeva, the author of the Jñāneśvarī and of other works to which we have assigned an earlier date. The reason we have placed Nāmadeva's works so much later than Jñānadeva's is that the language of the Nāmadeva Gāthā has been considerably modernized, even in the supposedly critical edition of the Gāthā.
12. The manuscript in this library (number 640) is entitled Jñāneśvarī Paribhāṣā; the Catalogue describes it wrongly as "Traité de philosophie en sanscrit et mahratte." This Paribhāṣā does not gloss all of the words in the Jñāneśvarī, but only about 1200 of them. It seems to be a copy of a similar manuscript in the collection of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune.
13. I. M. P. Raeside, "A Bibliographical Index of Mahānubhāva Works in Marathi," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 23 (1960), p. 491, dates it c. 1325.
14. In K. P. Kulkarni, Marāṭhi Vyutpatti Kośa (2nd edition, Puṇe, 1964), Introduction, p. 4.
15. Udyotana, Kuvalayamālā, edited by A. N. Upadhye (Bombay, 1959), p. 153, no. 10.
16. In fact, Old Marathi has a regular throwback to the n of Sanskrit forms in words that have ṇ in Prakrit: for example, nai (< Pk. ṇaī < Sk. nadī) or nica (
ṇicca < Sk. nitya).
17. The Mahānubhāva code sakaḷa lipī, however, the code in which are written not only our manuscript of the Ṛddhipura Māhātmya but also most of the manuscripts upon which are based the editions of the other Mahānubhāva texts we have used, further complicates this matter, as it substitutes -n- and -ṇ- for each other. See Raeside, "The Mahānubhāva sakaḷa lipī," and Kolte, Introduction to Ravaḷobāsa-Kṛta Sahyādri Varṇana, pp. 17-18.
18. It seems likely that the editors of most of the texts we have used standardized their texts' orthography at least to some extent.
19. The only exceptions are found in the Nāgāv stone inscription, whose scribe used forms like ḷāveāḷāgī (line 7) and ḷikhite (line 4).
20. Particularly in the "Inscription of Eighty-four" in Paṇḍharpūr (Paṇḍhar. SI., II).
21. For a more complete list of the abbreviations used in OM inscriptions, see PMKL, Introduction, pp. 65-67.
22. For fuller lists, see V. B. Kolte, Introduction to Ravaḷobāsa- kṛta Sahyādri Varṇana, p. 15, and I. M. P. Raeside, "The Mahānubhāva sakaḷa lipī," pp. 332-33.
23. V. B. Kolte, "Marāṭhīce Māhera," in Vikramasmṛti (Ujjain: Sindiyā Oriental Institute, 1946), pp. 479-95.
24. Hiralal Jain, editor, Pāhuḍa Dohā, by Muni Rāmasiṃha (Karanja: Karanja Jain Publication Society, 1933), Preface, p. 6.
25. J. Beames, A Comparative Grammar of Modern Aryan Languages of India (London, 1872-1879), Vol. I, p. 34.
26. Rodolf Hoernle, A Comparative Grammar of the Gaudian Languages (London, 1880; reprint, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1991), pp. xxi-xxii.
27. R. Pischel, Comparative Grammar of the Prākṛit Languages, translated by Subhadra Jhā (2nd edition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1965), p. 4.
28. G. A. Grierson, "Professor Pischel's Prakrit Grammar," Indian Antiquary 30 (1901), p. 553.
29. G. A. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. VII. Indo-Aryan Family, Southern Group. Specimens of the Marāṭhī Language (1905; reprint, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1968), p. 9.
30. Sten Konow, "Māhārāshṭrī, and Marāṭhī," Indian Antiquary 32 (1903), pp. 180-92.
31. Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, Wilson Philological Lectures on Sanskrit and the Derived Languages (1914; reprint, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1974), pp. 108-9.
32. Hiralal Jain, editor, Jasaharacariu, by Puṣpadanta, edited by P.L. Vaidya (Karanja, 1931; 2nd edition, New Delhi: Bhāratīya Jñānapīṭha Prakāśana, 1972), Introduction, p. 10.
33. Kolte, "Marāṭhīce Māhera," p. 494.
34. Hiralal Jain, editor, Sāvayadhammadohā (Karanja: Karanja Jain Publication Society, 1932), p. 20.
35. S. G. Tulpule, Yādavakālīna Marāṭhī Bhāṣā (second edition, Puṇe: Venus Prakāśana, 1973), pp. 48-53.
36. R. Caldwell, A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages (2nd edition, London: Trubner, 1875), p. 452.
37. Yādavakālīna Marāṭhī Bhāṣā, pp. 59-63.
38. H. D. Velankar, "Apabhraṃśa and Marāṭhī Metres," New Indian Antiquary 1 (1938), pp. 215-28.
39. S. M. Katre, Introduction to S. G. Tulpule, Yādavakālīna Marāṭhī Bhāṣā, pp. 18-19.
40. This goes against Hiralal Jain's definition of Apabhraṃśa as the "natural language, i.e., the language of the people, unrefined by any rigid rules of grammar and rhetoric" (Puṣpadanta, Ṇāyakumāracariu, Introduction, p. 46. 2nd edition, New Delhi: Bhāratīya Jñānapīṭha Prakāśana, 1972).
41. Yādavakālīna Marāṭhī Bhāṣā, pp. 101-9. (See also Raṅganātha Śāmācārya Lokāpura, Jñāneśvarīkālīna Marāṭhī Bhāṣevara Kannaḍacā Prabhāva [Beḷgāv, 1994], a work that Professor Tulpule read with great interest after he had written this introduction. Although he accepted many of the findings of the work and incorporated them into various entries in the body of the dictionary, he did not have time to refer to the work or its findings here.)
42. B. R. Patvardhan, "Śrī Jñāneśvarakālīna Marāṭhī va Kānaḍī," in Śrī Jñāneśvara-darśana, edited by N. B. Deshmukh (Ahmadnagar, 1934), part 2, pp. 178-79; C. N. Joshi, "A Few Thoughts on Kanarese and Some Other Words from Jñāneśvarī," Proceedings of the Seventh Oriental Conference, Baroda, 1933 (Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1935), pp. 937-50; M. A. Karandikar, Elements of Marathi Vocabulary (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Bombay, 1940), pp. 133-59; Alfred Master, A Grammar of Old Marathi (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964), pp. 35-37.
43. PMKL, no. 4, pp. 18-27.
44. B. Lewis Rice, Mysore and Coorg from the Inscriptions (London: Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1919), p. 179.
45. Shobhana Gokhale, "Paṇḍharapura āṇi Śrī Viṭṭhala," in Mahārāṣṭrācī Sattvadhārā, edited by G. M. Kulkarni and V. T. Shete (Puṇe: Dāstāne Rāmcandra āṇi Company, 1981), pp. 73-82.
46. K. Amrita Row, "The Dravidian Element in Prakrit," Indian Antiquary 46 (1917), pp. 33-36, and George A. Grierson, "An Arabic Word Quoted by Hemacandra," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 71 (1919), p. 235.
47. Venkata Ramanujaswami, Introduction to Hemacandra, Deśīnāmamālā, edited by R. Pischel (2nd edition, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1938), p. 11.
48. P. L. Vaidya, "Observations on Hemacandra's Deśīnāmamālā," Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 8 (1927), pp. 63-71; P. D. Kanitkar, "Deśīnāmamālā," Marāṭhī Saṃśodhana Patrikā 1.1 (1928), pp. 37 ff.; P. D. Gune, Introduction to Bhavisayattakahā of Dhanapāla, edited by C. D. Dalal and Pandurang Damodar Gune (Gaekwad's Oriental Series, 20) (Baroda: Central Library, 1923; reprint, Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1967), pp. 65-66; Jules Bloch, La formation de la langue Marathe (Paris, 1914); M. A. Karandikar, Elements of Marathi Vocabulary, pp. 74-100.
49. Vaidya, p. 67.
50. Pp. 77-85.
51. Introduction to Hemacandra, Deśīnāmamālā, 2nd edition, p. 11.
52. V. V. Mirashi, editor, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Volume 4. Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era (Ootacamund: Government Epigraphist for India, 1955), pp. 605-11; V. V. Mirashi, Saṃśodhana-Muktāvalī, Volume 1 (Nagpur: Madhyapradeśa Saṃśodhana Maṇḍaḷa, 1954) p. 159.
53. F. Kielhorn, "Aihole Inscription of Pulikesin II, Śaka-Samvat 556," Epigraphia Indica 6 (1900-1901), pp. 1-12.
54. H. N. Nene and N. B. Bhavalkar, editors, Śrī Cakradhara Siddhāntasūtreṃ (Nagpur: Nīḷakaṇṭha Baḷavanta Bhavāḷakara, 1931), Introduction, p. 2; cf. V. B. Kolte, editor, Viśvanāthabāsa Bīḍakara yāñcā Ācārabanda (Malkāpūr: Aruṇa Prakāśana, 1982), p. 18.
55. P. V. Kane, "Ancient Geography of Maharashtra," Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 24 (1917), pp. 613-57.
Works in Marathi
अग्निहोत्रि, द.ह. मराठी वर्णोच्चार-विकास. नागपूरः विदर्भ साहित्य संघ, १९६३.
अडोणी, द.ल. "ज्ञानेश्वरांचा शब्दार्थ विचार." अ. ना. देशपांडे (संपा.) शं. दा. पेंडसे गौरवग्रंथ, पृ. ४९-७३. नागपूर, १९६३.
——."ज्ञानेश्वरीतील काही महत्वपूर्ण शब्दांच्या अर्थपरिवर्तनांची ऐतिहासिक समीक्षा" (अप्रकाशित पी.एच्. डी. प्रबंध, सागर विद्यापीठ, १९६७).
आनेराज व्यास. लक्षणरत्नाकर (संपादक ह. ना. नेने). नागपूर, १९३७.
आपटे, के. वा. "देशी शब्दांचे मराठी अवतार." मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका २५.२ (१९७८), १-२२.
——. "'लीलाबाई' आणि मराठी." मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका २७.४ (१९८०), २५९-६५.
आवळीकर, पंडित. "मराठी कन्नड संबंधः भाषिक अंग," भाषा आणि जीवन ९.२ (१९९१), ३१-४४.
उगाउकर, ज. बा. ज्ञानेश्वरी-टिपण (संपादक मु. श्री. कानडे आणि सु. बा. कुलकर्णी). पुणे, १९६८.
करंदीकर, म. अ. "मराठी शब्दसंग्रहमीमांसा" (अप्रकाशित पी. एच्. डी. प्रबंध, मुंबई विद्यापीठ, १९४१).
कर्वे, इरावती. मराठी लोकांची संस्कृती. पुणे, १९५१.
कर्वे, चिं. ग. "ज्ञानेश्वरीतील शब्दांची घडण." प्रसाद ७.१ (१९५३), २३-२६.
कानडे, मु. श्री. मराठी शब्दसमीक्षा. पुणे, १९८९.
——. "ज्ञानेश्वरी शब्दसंग्रहः काही विषेश." मराठी साहित्य पत्रिका नं.१९३-९४ (एप्रिल-सप्टेंबर १९७६), पृ. ९०-१००.
कानेटकर, स. गो. "ज्ञानेश्वरीची शब्दप्रक्रिया व शब्दसृष्टी" श्रीज्ञानेश्वर दर्शन, भाग १, पृ. ८१-१००. अहमदनगर, १९३४.
कुरुंदकर, अरविंद. "महेश्वर पंडित." प्रतिष्ठान २९.१-२.
कुलकर्णी, कृ. पां. शब्दः उद्गम आणि विकास. पुणे, १९५३.
कुलकर्णी, पां. ज्ञा. (संपा.). चांगदेव पासष्टी. पुणे, १९५५.
कुलकर्णी, मु. रा. ज्ञानेश्वरीच्या राजवाडे प्रतीची पाठचिकित्सा. औरंगाबाद, १९९३.
कुलकर्णी, र. पु. "मराठी शीलालेखांत येणाऱ्या काही शिल्पशास्त्रीय शब्दांचा अर्थ." भारत इतिहास संशोधक मंडळ त्रैमासिक ६६.१-४ (१९८७-१९८८), पृ. ६७-७०.
कुलकर्णी, व. दि. लीळाचरित्र-एक अभ्यास. पुणे, १९६७.
कुलकर्णी श्री. मा. "मराठी आडनावांची यादवकालीन जडणघडण." विदर्भ संशोधन मंडळ वार्षीक, १९७९, पृ. २१९-२९.
कुलकर्णी श्री. रं. प्राचीन मराठी गद्यः प्रेरणा आणि परंपरा. मुंबई, १९७०.
केतकर, द. वे. (संपा.). ज्ञानेश्वरी (केतकी-शब्दार्थ जान्हवी सहित). विजापूर, १९५१.
केतकर, श्री. व्यं. प्राचीन महाराष्ट्र, खंड १. मुंबई, १९३५.
——. महाराष्ट्रीयांचे काव्यपरीक्षण. पुणे, १९२८.
कोलते वि. भि. "पाठचिकित्सा." सुभाष भेंडे (संपा.), अ. का. प्रियोळकर स्मृतिग्रंथ. मुंबई, १९७४.
——. प्राचीन मराठी साहित्य संशोधन. पुणे, १९६८.
——. "मराठीचे माहेर." वा. आ. देशमुख आणि इतर (संपा.), विक्रमस्मृति. उज्जयिनी, १९४६.
——. मराठीच्या अस्मितेचा शोध. पुणे, १९९२.
——. महानुभाव आचारधर्म. मलकापूर, १९७३.
——. महानुभाव तत्वज्ञान. चौथी आवृती, मलकापूर, १९७५.
——. महानुभाव संशोधन, भाग १. मलकापूर, १९६२.
——. महानुभाव संशोधन, भाग २. मलकापूर, १९८४.
——. महाराष्ट्रातील काही ताम्रपट व शिलालेख. मुंबई, १९८७.
कोल्हटकर, एम्. पी. ज्ञानेश्वरी शब्दकोश (उल्लेख 'कोल्हटकर कुलवृ्त्तांत'. पुणे, १९३६, पृ. १०२).
खरे, ग. ह. महाराष्ट्राची चार दैवते. पुणे, १९५८.
——. "शब्दमालिका-ज्ञानेश्वरी अथवा भाषारत्नमालिका." भारत इतिहास संशोधक मंडळ त्रैमासिक ५७ (१९७६), १७५-२०५.
——. श्रीविठ्ठल आणि पंढरपूर. आ. ३री पुणे, १९६३.
खैरे, विश्वनाथ. अडगुळं मडगुळं. पुणे, १९८१.
——. मराठी भाषेचे मूळ. मुंबई, १९७९.
——. "मऱ्हाटेचि बोल." साधना (पुणे) ३० (१९७७).
गोखले, म. वि मराठी आरती. पुणे, १९६७.
गोडबोले, र. भा. ज्ञानेश्वरी परिभाषा." निबंधमाला. पुणे, मार्च १८७८.
गोंधळेकर, रा. श्री ज्ञानेश्वरीची परिभाषा. आ. २री, पुणे, १८९०.
श्री चक्रधरदर्शन. मुंबई, १९८२.
चौहान, देवीसिंग. "श्रीकृष्ण चरित्रातील काही शब्द." मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका १३.४ (१९६६), पृ. ७५-८८.
जोशी, चिं. वि. "देशी भाषांचे प्राचीनत्व." विविध ज्ञान विस्तार ५९.१२ (१९२८), पृ. ५२५.
——. "मराठी-द्राविडी संबंध व ज्ञानेश्वरीतील द्राविडी शब्द." विविध ज्ञान विस्तार, नोव्हेंबर-डिसेंबर १९३४, पृ.६६५; सह्याद्री, जुलै १९३५.
जोशी, ना. ग. प्राचीन गीतभंडार. मुंबई, १९५९.
——. मराठी छंदोरचनेचा विकास. मुंबई, १९६४.
जोशी, प्र. न. नाथसंप्रदाय-उदय व विकास. ठाणे, १९७७.
जोशी, म. रा. नाथसंप्रदाय. पुणे, १९८२.
जोशी, वसंत स. आणि. ग. ना. जोगळेकर. भाषा व साहित्य संशोधन. पुणे, १९८५.
जोशी, शं. बा. मऱ्हाटी संस्कृतीः काही समस्या. आ. २री, पुणे, १९८०.
डिसकळकर, द. बा. महाराष्ट्राचा प्राचीन इतिहास व संस्कृती. पुणे, १९६४.
डोळके, सुरेश म. संशोधन समस्या. नागपूर, १९९०.
ढेरे, रा. चिं. चक्रपणि. पुणे, १९७७.
——. महाराष्ट्राचा देव्हारा. पुणे, १९७८.
——. लोकसंस्कृतीची क्षितीजे. पुणे, १९७१.
——. श्रीविठ्ठलः एकमहासमन्वय. पुणे, १९८४.
——. संतसाहित्य आणि लोकसाहित्यः काही अनुबंध. पुणे, १९७८.
तगारे, ग. वा. "राष्ट्रकूटकालीन मराठी." महाराष्ट्र साहित्य पत्रिका १४.२ (१९४१), पृ. २३-३०; १४.४ (१९४१), पृ. १०-१४ आणि १५.१ (१९४२), पृ. २८-३६.
तुळपुळे, शं. गो. "प्राचीन मराठीचे वाक्प्रचारवैभव." पुणे विद्यापीठ पत्रिका, ज्ञानखंड,३ (१९५४), १-५०.
——. महानुभाव पंथ आणि त्याचे वाङ्मय. पुणे, १९७६.
——. यादवकालीन मराठी भाषा. द्वितीयावृत्ती, पुणे, १९७३.
——. (संपा.) मराठी वाङ्मयाचा इतिहास, खंड १. पुणे, १९८४.
दांडेकर, शं. वा. वारकरी पंथाचा इतिहास. पुणे, १९५७.
——. श्री ज्ञानेश्वरी प्रस्तावना. पुणे, १९५३.
दिवाण, एम्. ए. "महानुभावीय साती काव्यग्रंथाची शब्दसूची आणि त्यातील प्राचीन शब्दांचा रुपार्थवेध" (अप्रकाशित पी. एच्. डी. प्रबंध, शिवाजी विद्यापीठ, १९८४).
देवस्थळी, आ. ग. ज्ञानेश्वरीचा कोश. १८७४.
देशपांडे, अ. ना. प्राचीन मराठी वाङ्मयाचा इतिहास, भाग १. पुणे, १९६६.
——. (संपा.) शं. दा. पेंडसे गौरवग्रंथ (संतसाहित्य संस्कृती मंथन). नागपूर, १९६३.
देशपांडे, ब्रह्मानंद. देवगिरीचे यादव. औरंगाबाद, शके १८९७ (१९७५).
——. शब्दवेध. औरंगाबाद, १९७९.
——. शोधमुद्रा. औरंगाबाद, १९७६.
देशपांडे, य. खु. "महानुभावांचे चरित्रग्रंथ." भारत इतिहास संशोधक मंडळ त्रैमासिक १३.२ (१९३२), पृ. ४५-५७.
देशमुख, मा. गो. मराठीचे साहित्य शास्त्र. आ. २री, पुणे, १९८०.
धोंड, म. वा. "प्रबंध, धृपद आणि ख्याल." मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका २२.२ (१९७५), पृ. १-४०.
——. ज्ञानेश्वरीतील लौकिक सृष्टी. मुंबई, १९९१.
नाडकर्णी, आ. रा. "ज्ञानेश्वरीतील द्राविडी शब्द." मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका २८.१ (१९८०), १-५१.
——. ज्ञानेश्वरीतील शब्दांचा कोकणी बोलीत शोध. मुंबई, १९८१.
निरीक्षक (लाड, पु. मं.)."मराठी भाषेचा आदर्श कोश." विविध ज्ञान विस्तार ६४.१ (१९३३), पृ. ५-१२.
नेने, ह. ना. संशोधन लेख संग्रह, भाग १. नागपूर, १९५७.
पटवर्ध, भा. रा. "श्रीज्ञानेश्वरकालीन मराठी व कानडी." श्रीज्ञानेश्वर दर्शन, भाग १, खंड २, पृ. १६८-८०. अहमदनगर, १९३४.
पटवर्धन, मा. त्रिं. छंदोरचना. मुंबई, १९३७.
पठाण, यु, म. महानुभाव साहित्य संशोधन, खंड १. औरंगाबाद, १९७३.
परशरामबास. प्रकरणवस (संपादक माधवराव पंजाबी). अमरावती, १९६८.
परिभाषा ज्ञानोबाची. पुणे, शके १७८७ (१८६५).
पांगारकर, ल. रा. मराठी वाङ्मयाचा इतिहास, खंड १. पुणे, १९३२.
पाटील, गो. म. "ज्ञानेश्वरीतील गुजराथी शब्द ऋण." आनंदवन, दिवाळी अंक, १९५९, पृ. ११३-१५.
पानसे, मु. ग. यादवकालीन महाराष्ट्र. मुंबई, १९६३.
पारखे, व. वि. "महदंबेचे 'मातृका' रुक्मिणी स्वयंवर: काही विचार." मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका २४.२ (१९७७), पृ. १२७-३४.
——. "ज्ञानेश्वरीतील पर्याय शब्दकोश." युगवाणी २६.३ (जुलै-ऑगस्ट १९७१), पृ. ५९-६३.
पेठे, म. प. श्रीज्ञानेश्वर वाग्यज्ञ दर्शन. आळंदी, १९७३.
पै, जे. "ज्ञानेश्वरी परिभाषा" (ms. in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris).
पोतदार, अनुराधा. मराठीचा अर्थविचार. पुणे, १९६९.
पोतदार, द. वा. "ज्ञानेश्वरकालीन तेलगू ग्रंथातील मराठी गाणी." भारत इतिहास संशोधक मंडळ त्रैमासिक ११.३ (शके १८५२ ), पृ. २२-२३.
प्रकर्णवस (प्रकरणवश) (संपादक माधवराज पंजाबी). अमरावती, १९६८.
प्रियोळकर, अ. का. "अस्सल मराठी छंदांचा ऐतिहासिक विचार." विविध ज्ञान विस्तार ६४.९-१०, ११-१२ (११३३), पृ. २७१-८२, ३१७-२१.
——. ग्रांथिक मराठी भाषा आणि कोंकणी बोली. पुणे, १९६६.
——. "ताडपत्रावरील ज्ञात एकच मराठी ग्रंथ." मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका १३.१ (१९६५), पृ. ८-१६.
बहिरट, भा. पं. आणि प. ज्ञा. भालेराव. वारकरी संप्रदाय: उदय व विकास. आ. २ री, पुणे, १९८८.
बहिरा जातवेद विरचित भागवत दशमस्कंधावरील आद्य मराठी टीका भैरवी (संपादक द. गं. कोपरकर). पुणे-इंदोर, १९९३.
भागवत, अनुसूया. "जानपद मराठी ओवी." महाराष्ट्र साहित्य पत्रिका १४.४ (१९४१).
भावे, वि. ल आणि शं. गो. तुळपुळे. महाराष्ट्र सारस्वत. आ. ६वी, मुंबई, १९८३.
भावे, शि. न. श्री ज्ञानेश्वरी शब्दार्थ-कोश. वर्धा १९५१.
पंडित भीष्माचार्य संकलित निरुक्तशेष (संपादक य. खु. देशपांडे). नागपूर, १९६१.
भोळे, मा. ल. (संपा.) संशोधनाची क्षितीजे. नागपूर, १९८५.
मंगरुळकर, अरविंद वि. मो. केळकर (संपा.). ज्ञानदेवी, खंड १, २, ३. मुंबई, १९९४.
"मराठी भाषेचे कोश." विविध ज्ञान विस्तार ४.५ (१८७२).
मराठे, दत्तराज. लक्षणबंद (संपादक वि. भि. कोलते). औरंगाबाद, १९८५.
मांडवकर, भाऊ. चिंतनी. अमरावती, १९८०.
मांडे, प्रभाकर. लोकसाहित्याचे अंतःप्रवाह. पुणे, १९७५.
मालशे, स. गो. "ज्ञानदेवांचे शब्दभांडार." लोकराज्य ३७.१२ (डिसेंबर १९८१, साहित्य संमेलन विशेषांक), १६.
मिराशी, वा. वि. संशोधन मुक्तावली, सर १-९. नागपूर, १९५४-१९७९.
मोडक, गो. कृ. मराठीचे अंतरंगदर्शन. पुणे, १९३२.
मोने, मो. स. मराठी भाषेचे व्याकरणकार व व्याकरणप्रबंधकार. पुणे, १९२७.
राजवाडे, वि. का. राष्ट्रीय मराठी कोश. धुळे, शके १८२७ (१९०५).
——. "शके १०५१ मधील काही मराठी पदे." विश्ववृत्त २.१ (१९०७), पृ. १-१८..
——. ज्ञानेश्वरीची प्रस्तावना. धुळे, १९०९.
——. ज्ञानेश्वरीची प्रस्तावना आणि ज्ञानेश्वरीतील मराठी भाषेचे व्याकरण (संपादक शं. गो. तुळपुळे). मुंबई, १९७९.
——. ज्ञानेश्वरीतील मराठी भाषेचे व्याकरण. धुळे, शके १८३१ (१९०९).
रानडे, ग. के. "ज्ञानेश्वरीतील खानदेशी भाषा." प्रसाद ३३.७ (१९८०), पृ. २४-२७.
रामकवी. भाषाप्रकाश (संपादक शं. गो. तुळपुळे). पुणे, १९६२.
रेळेकर, इनामदार, आणि मिरजकर (संपा.). श्रीनामदेव दर्शन. कोल्हापूर, १९७०.
लक्षधीर. "महाराष्ट्र काव्यदीपिका" (संपादक ह. ना. नेने). संशोधन लेख संग्रह, भाग २. नागपूर, १९५७, पृ. १-३९.
लाड, पु. मं. "अभंगचर्चेचे समालोचन." प्रतिभा, मुंबई ७.१२ (१९३४).
लाळे, प्र. ग. "ज्ञानेश्वरी आणि तेलुगू." भाषा आणि जीवन, पुणे १०.२ (१९९२), पृ. ४-१०.
लोकापुर, रंगनाथ शामाचार्य. ज्ञानेश्वरीकालीन मराठी भाषेवर कन्नडचा प्रभाव. बेळगावं, १९९४.
वाईंदेशकर, अवधूत मुनी. वाईंदेशकर यांचा ब्रह्मविद्यासाररत्नाकर अर्थात विचार बंद (संपादक वि. भि. कोलते). औरंगाबाद, १९८९.
वाकसकर, वि. स. "ज्ञानेश्वरींतील मुसलमानी शब्द." प्रसाद ३.५ (१९४९), पृ. २१-२२.
विश्र्वनाथबास बीडकर यांचा आचारबंद (संपादक वि. भि. कोलते). मलकापूर, १९८२.
वेंकटमाधव. महाराष्ट्र प्रयोग चंद्रिका (संपादक कृ. श्री. अर्जुनवाडकर). पुणे, १९७०.
वेलिंगकर, रामचंद्र नारायण. ज्ञानेश्वरीचें शब्द-भांडार. मुंबई, १९५९.
वैद्य, चिं. वि. आणि पां. दा. गुणे. मराठी भाषेची उत्पत्ती. मुंबई, १९६८.
शिंदे, वि. रा. "कानडी आणि मराठी." केसरी, डिसेंबर १९२३.
शेवारीकर, दत्तराज. स्थानमार्गदर्शक. घोगरगांव, १९७०.
सहस्त्रबुद्धे, पु. ग. महाराष्ट्र संस्कृती. पुणे, १९७९.
साठे, शरद केशव. अनुभवामृताचा पदसंदर्भकोश. मुंबई, १९८९.
"ज्ञानेश्वरी शब्द पर्याय," १८६५ (ms. in Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune; cf. केसरी, ता. २.१.१९८९.
याशिवाय विविध ज्ञान विस्तार (मुंबई), महाराष्ट्र साहित्य पत्रिका (पुणे), मराठी संशोधन पत्रिका (मुंबई), विदर्भ संशोधन मंडळ वार्षिक (नागपूर), भारत इतिहास संशोधक मंडळ त्रैमासिक (पुणे) इत्यादी संशोधन नियतकालिके.
Works in Other Languages
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Janā. (Nām.) Abhaṅgas of Janābāī. In Nām., pp. 921-1012. Jatī. Jatīcā Daśaku. In Mahādev Vināyak Gokhale, Marāṭhī Āratī: Ārambha-kālā pāsūna I. S. 1818 paryanta (Puṇeṃ: Sāvitrī Prakāśan, 1967), pp. 253-54. Jñā. Jñāneśvarī (Rājvāḍe's 1909 text edited by S. V. Dāṇḍekar and others) (Mumbaī: Government Central Press, third edition, 1963). Jñā. (Dāṇḍekar ed.) Sārtha Jñāneśvarī, edited by Śaṅkar Vāman Dāṇḍekar (Puṇeṃ: Prasād Prakāśan, 1953). Jñā. (Harṣe ed.) Śrībhagavadgītā-Vyākhyāna Jñānadevī, Adhyāya Pahilā, edited by Rāmkṛṣṇa Gaṇeś Harṣe (Puṇeṃ: author, 1947). Jñā. (Māḍ. ed.) Jñānadevakṛta Bhāvārthadīpikā. Jñānadevī (Jñāneśvarī), edited by Rāmcandra Viṣṇu Māḍgā̃vkar (Mumbaī: Tattvavivecak Press, 1907). JñāGā. Abhaṅgas of Jñānadeva. In Sārtha Śrījñānadeva Abhaṅga-Gāthā, edited by Pralhād Narahar Jośī (Puṇe: Suvicār Prakāśan Maṇḍaḷ, 1969). JñāGā(S). Supplement to the abhaṅgas of Jñānadeva. JñāHari. Jñānadeva, Haripāṭha. In Charlotte Vaudeville, L'Invocation: Le Haripāṭh de Dñyāndev (Paris: École Française d'Extrême-Orient, 1969), pp. 91-111. JP. Viśvanāthabāsa Viracita Jñānaprabodha, edited by Viṣṇu Bhikājī Kolte. Malkāpūr: Aruṇ Prakāśan, 1973. Kalā. Kalānidhi, edited by A. K. Priyoḷkar. In Marāṭhī Saṃśodhana Patrikā 13.1 (October 1965), pp. 8-16. Kānho. Abhaṅgas of Kānhopātrā. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 60-61. Karmā. Abhaṅgas of Karma Meḷā. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 95-97. Kuvalaya. Dākṣinyacihnāṅka-Śrīmad-Uddyotanasūriviracitā Kuvalayamālā (Prākṛtabhāṣānibaddhā Campūsvarūpā Mahākathā), edited by Ādityanāth Nemināth Upādhye (Bombay: Singhi Jaina Śāstra Śikṣāpīṭha, 1959). Lāḍāī Abhaṅga of Lāḍāī. SSGāthā., Part 2, p. 302. Limbā. Abhaṅga of Limbāī. SSGāthā., Part 2, p. 302. LP. Līḷācaritra, "Pūrvārdha." Mhāïmbhaṭa Saṅkalita Śrīcakradhara Līḷā Caritra, edited by V. B. Kolte (Mumbaī: Mahārāṣṭra Rājya Sāhitya-Saṃskṛti Maṇḍaḷ, 2nd edition, 1982), pp. 1-338. LP. (Tul. ed.) Mhāïmbhaṭa-kṛta Līḷācaritra, Vols. 1-3 (Puṇe: Suvicār Prakāśan Maṇḍaḷ, 1964-1966). LU. Līḷācaritra, "Uttarārdha." Mhāïmbhaṭa Saṅkalita Śrīcakradhara Līḷā Caritra, edited by V. B. Kolte (Mumbaī: Mahārāṣṭra Rājya Sāhitya-Saṃskṛti Maṇḍaḷ, 2nd edition, 1982), pp. 339-734. LU. (Tul. ed.) Mhāïmbhaṭa-kṛta Līḷācaritra, Vols. 4-5 (Puṇe: Suvicār Prakāśan Maṇḍaḷ, 1967). Mahādā. Abhaṅgas of Mahādā. SSGāthā., p. 291. Mānas. Mānasollāsa of King Bhūlokamalla Someśvara, edited by G. K. Shrigondekar. 3 vols. Gaekwad's Oriental Series, Nos. 28, 84, and 138 (Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1925 [reprint, 1967], 1939, and 1961). MP. Muni Keśirāja Viracita Mūrtiprakāśa, edited by Viṣṇu Bhikājī Kolte (Nāgpūr: Vidarbha Saṃśodhan Maṇḍaḷ, 1962). MRS. Mahadambā, Mātṛkī-Rukmiṇī-Svayaṃvara. In Ādya Marāṭhī Kavayitrī, edited by Vāman Nārāyaṇ Deśpāṇḍe (Yavatmāḷ: Śāradāśram, 1935), pp. 32-42. Muktā. Abhaṅgas of Muktābāī. SSGāthā., Part 1, pp. 127-29. MuktāHari. Haripāṭha of Muktābāī. SSGāthā., Part 1, p. 8. Nām. Śrīnāmadeva Gāthā, edited by S. V. Dāṇḍekar and others. Mumbaī: Sāsakīya Madhyavartī Mudraṇālaya, 1970. Nām. (Jog ed.) Śrīnāmadevācī āṇi Tyāñce Kuṭumbāntīla va Samakālina Sādūñcyā Abhaṅgāñcī Gāthā, edited by Tukārām Tātyā (Bombay: Tattvavivecak Press, 1894). Nar. Abhaṅgas of Naraharī Sonāra. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 63-65. NiGā. Abhaṅgas of Nivṛttinātha. SSGāthā., Part 1, pp. 9-29. NiHari. Haripāṭha of Nivṛttinātha. SSGāthā., Part 1, pp. 2-4. Nirmaḷā Abhaṅgas of Nirmaḷā. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 94-95. Nirved. Dāïmbā, Nirvedastotra. In "Dāyambākṛta Nirvedastotra," edited by Kāñcanmālā Harmaḷkar. Marāṭhī Saṃśodhana Patrikā 19, no. 2 (January, 1972), pp. 129-44.
NLMūrti. Mūrtijñāna. In Nityadīnīlīḷā, edited by Hari Nārāyaṇ Nene (Nāgpūr: Harindra Jītendra Vyās, n.d.), pp. 18-26. NLNām. Nāmāce Dahā Ṭhāya. In Nityadīnīlīḷā, edited by Hari Nārāyaṇ Nene (Nāgpūr: Harindra Jītendra Vyās, n.d.), pp. 26-29. NLPrasād. Prasādasevā. In Nityadīnīlīḷā, edited by Hari Nārāyaṇ Nene (Nāgpūr: Harindra Jītendra Vyās, n.d.), pp. 1-5. NLPūjā. Pūjāvasara. In Nityadīnīlīḷā, edited by Hari Nārāyaṇ Nene (Nāgpūr: Harindra Jītendra Vyās, n.d.), pp. 5-17. NV. Naravilāpastotra: Marāṭhī Ṭīkā (Bhāskarabhaṭṭa Borīkaraviracita Mūḷa Saṃskṛta Naravilāpastotra āṇi tyāvarīla Lakṣmīdhara Sevalīkarakṛta Marāṭhī Ovībaddha Ṭīkā), edited by V. B. Kolte (Auraṅgābād: Rāüḷ Prakāśan, 1987). P. Pañcopākhyāna, edited by V. B. Kolte (Mumbaī: Mahārāṣṭra Rājya Sāhitya-Saṃskṛti Maṇḍaḷ, 1979). P. Ārādhya-carita Pālakurikī Somanātha, Paṇḍita Ārādhyacarita (in Telugu), Marathi verses cited in S. G. Tuḷpuḷe, Marāṭhī Vāṅmayācā Itihāsa: Khaṇḍa Pahilā (Puṇe: Mahārāṣṭra Sāhitya Pariṣad, 1984), p. 42; cf. A. N. Deśpāṇḍe, Prācīna Marāṭhī Vāṅmayācā Itihāsa, Part I (Puṇe: Venus Prakāśan, 1966), p. 230. Param. Paramāmṛta, edited by J. R. Ajgāvkar (Bombay, 1931). Parisā. Abhaṅgas of Parisā Bhāgavata. SSGāthā., Part 2, pp. 302-304. PMKL Prācīna Marāṭhī Korīva Lekha, edited by S. G. Tuḷpuḷe (Puṇeṃ: Puṇeṃ Vidyāpīṭh, 1963). PV. Pañcavārtika. In M. S. Mone, Marāṭhī Bhāṣece Vyākaraṇakāra va Vyākaraṇa-Prabandhakāra (Puṇeṃ, 1927), pp. 89-118. Rājīmatī. Yaśaścandra, Rājīmatīprabodha (in Sanskrit), Marathi passage cited in S. G. Tuḷpuḷe, Marāṭhī Vāṅmayācā Itihāsa: Khaṇḍa Pahilā (Puṇe: Mahārāṣṭra Sāhitya Pariṣad, 1984), p. 43. RK. Viṭhṭhalagalaṇḍa Viracita Rasakaumodi, edited by Śrīdhar Kuḷkarṇī (Hyderabad: Marāṭhvāḍā Sāhitya Pariṣad, 1957). ṚM. Maheśvara Paṇḍita, Ṛddhipura Māhātmya. Manuscript in the collection of the Department of Marathi, Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad. RS. Rukmiṇī Svayaṃvara. Verses 1-879 in Mahākavī Narendra-Viracita Rukmiṇī-Svayaṃvara, edited by Viṣṇu Bhikājī Kolte (Malkāpūr: Aruṇ Prakāśan, 1966); verses 881-2936 in Narīndra Viracita Ṛkmiṇīsvayaṃvara, edited by Gaṇeś Mahādev Ḍoḷke (Nāgpūr: Vidarbha Saṃśodhan Maṇḍaḷ, 1971). ṚV. Nārāyaṇavyāsa Bahāḷiye-kṛta Śrī Ṛddhipuravarṇana, edited by S. G. Tuḷpuḷe (Nāgpūr/Puṇe: Suvicār Prakāśan Maṇḍaḷ, 1967). Sāvatā. Abhaṅgas of Sāvatā Māḷī. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 65-66. Senā. Abhaṅgas of Senā Nhāvī. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 66-75. SI. Stone inscription. Śi. Kavīśvara Bhāskarabhaṭṭa Borīkara Viracita Śiśupāḷavadha, edited by Viṣṇu Bhikājī Kolte (Malkāpūr: Aruṇ Prakāśan, n.d.). ŚKC. Śrīcakradhara-nirūpita Śrīkṛṣṇacaritra, edited by S. G. Tuḷpuḷe (Puṇe: Venus Prakāśan, 1973). SmṛSam. Smṛtisamuccaya. In Smṛtisthaḷa, edited by Vāman Nārāyaṇ Deśpāṇḍe (1939; Puṇeṃ: Venus Prakāśan, 3rd edition, 1968), pp. 108-20. Sopān. Abhaṅgas of Sopānadeva. SSGāthā., Part 1, pp. 125-27. SopānHari. Haripāṭha of Sopānadeva. SSGāthā., Part 1, pp. 6-8. Soyarā. Abhaṅgas of Soyarābāī. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 87-91. SP. Sthāna Pothī, edited by Viṣṇu Bhikājī Kolte (Malkāpūr: Aruṇ Prakāśan, 2nd edition, 1976). SS. Smṛtisthaḷa, edited by Vāman Nārāyaṇ Deśpāṇḍe (1939; Puṇeṃ: Venus Prakāśan, 3rd edition, 1968). SSam. See SmṛSam. SSGāthā. Gāthāpañcaka arthāt Sakala-Santa-Gāthā, edited by Tryambak Hari Āvaṭe (Puṇeṃ: Indira Chāpkhānā, 1924-1927). Sū. [Kesobāsa,] Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene (1935; Nāgpūr, 3rd edition, 1942).
Sū. (Feldhaus ed.) Kesobāsa, Sūtrapāṭha. In Anne Feldhaus, The Religious System of the Mahānubhāva Sect: The Mahānubhāva Sūtrapāṭha (New Delhi: Manohar, 1983), pp. 85-169. SūĀ. Sūtrapāṭha, "Ācāra." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 9-21. SūĀM. Sūtrapāṭha, "Ācāra Mālikā." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 21-30. SūAnya. Sūtrapāṭha, "Anyavyāvṛtti." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, p. 2. SūAsatī. Sūtrapāṭha, "Asatīparī." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, p. 5. SūMahā. Sūtrapāṭha, "Mahāvākya." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 5-6. SūNir. Sūtrapāṭha, "Nirvacana." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, p. 6. SūPK. Sūtrapāṭha, "Pañcakṛṣṇa." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, p. 1. SūPN. Sūtrapātha, "Pañcanāma." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 1-2. SūPūr. Sūtrapāṭha, "Pūrvī." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, p. 1. SūSaṃhār. Sūtrapāṭha, "Saṃhāra." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 3-4. SūSaṃs. Sūtrapāṭha, "Saṃsaraṇa." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 4-5. SūUddhar. Sūtrapāṭha, "Uddharaṇa." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 6-9. SūV. Sūtrapāṭha, "Vicāra." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 31-42. SūVidyā. Sūtrapāṭha, "Vidyāmārga." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, p. 3. SūVM. Sūtrapāṭha, "Vicāra Mālikā." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 42-50. SūYuga. Sūtrapāṭha, "Yugadharma." In Śrīcakradharokta Sūtrapāṭha, edited by H. N. Nene, pp. 2-3. SV. Ravaḷobāsa-kṛta Sahyādri-Varṇana, edited by V. B. Kolte (Puṇe: Puṇe Vidyāpīṭh, 1964). TS. Cāṅgadeva Vaṭeśvara Kṛta Tattvasāra, edited by H. R. Divekar (Ujjayinī: Prācya Granthasaṅgrahālaya, 1936). UG. Kavīśvara Bhāskarabhaṭṭa Borīkara Viracita Uddhavagītā, edited by Viṣṇu Bhikājī Kolte (Malkāpūr: Aruṇ Prakāśan, 2nd edition, 1962). UH. Kavī Combhāviracita "Ukhāharaṇa," edited by Y. M. Paṭhāṇ (Auraṅgābād: Marāṭhvāḍā Vidyāpīṭh Prakāśan, 1977). Vaṅk. Abhaṅgas of Vaṅkā. SSGāthā., Part 3, pp. 91-94. VD. Vivekadarpaṇa. In V. D. Kulkarṇī, "Nāthaparamparetīla Gadya Grantha: 'Viveka-Darpaṇa,'" Marathi Journal, Osmania University 6 (1971), pp. 15-26, 85-128. VH. Dāmodarapaṇḍita Viracita Vachāharaṇa, edited by Viṣṇu Bhikājī Kolte (Malkāpūr: Aruṇ Prakāśan, 3rd edition, 1976). Visobā Abhaṅgas of Visobā Khecara. SSGāthā., Part 2, p. 321. Viṭhā Abhaṅgas of Viṭhā. SSGāthā., Part 2, pp. 295-301. Vṛ. Vṛddhācāra. In Smṛtisthaḷa, edited by Vāman Nārāyaṇ Deśpāṇḍe (1939; Puṇeṃ: Venus Prakāśan, third edition, 1968), pp. 80-93. VS. Ādya Kavi Śrīmanmukundarāja Viracita Sārtha Śrīvivekasindhu, edited by M. V. Gokhale (Puṇeṃ: Yaśvant Prakāśan, 1977). VVS. Paṇḍit Viṭṭhala Galaṇḍaviracita Vaidya vallabhasaṃhitā, edited by V. D. Kuḷkarṇī and P. Śrīrāmcandruḍu, vol. 1 (Hyderabad: Vidyāpīṭh Granthālaya va Marāṭhī Vibhāg, 1986).
abbrv. abbreviation abl. ablative adj. adjective adj. f. adjective occurring only in the feminine adj. m. adjective occurring only in the masculine adj. n. adjective occurring only in the neuter adv. adverb adv. phrase adverbial phrase adv. postpos. adverbial postposition A.F. Anne Feldhaus Amara. Amarasiṃha, Amarakośa ant. antonym Ap. Apabhraṃśa Ar. Arabic Āyur. Āyurveda, Āyurvedic BISMQ. Bhārat Itihās Saṃśodhak Maṇḍaḷ Quarterly BP. Rāmakavi-kṛta Bhāṣāprakāśa, edited by S. G. Tulpule caus. causative cog. v. cognate verb cond. conditional conj. conjunction, conjunctive constr. construction corr. corrupt form dat. dative demonstr. pron. demonstrative pronoun Deś. Deśī, Deśya Deuḷ. Rāje Deuḷgāv Rāje Dhābā. Dhābādev Dive CPI. Dive-Āgar CPI. DNM. Hemacandra, Deśīnāmamālā Dṛ. Sthaḷa Dṛṣṭānta Sthaḷa ed. edition, editor EI Epigraphia Indica excl. exclamation f. feminine noun fn. footnote fut. future Grk. Greek Guj. Gujarati hon. pl. honorific phural id. idiom imp. imperative ind. indeclinable indef. pron. indefinite pronoun inf. infinitive instr. instrumental interj. interjection interrog. adv. interrogative adverb interrog. pron. interrogative pronoun interrog. pron. adj. interrogative pronominal adjective K. Kannada Karakaṇḍa. Muni-Kanakāmarā-Viracita Karakaṇḍa Cāriu, edited by Hiralal Jain Khāṭe. Khāṭegrām Ko. V. B. Kolte Ko., MS. Kolte, Mahānubhāva Saṃśodhana Ko., MT. Kolte, Mahānubhāva Tattvajñāna Kolte, MKTS Kolte, Mahārāṣṭrātīla Kāhī Tāmrapaṭa va Śilālekha Koṅk. Koṅkaṇī l., ll. line, lines lit. literally loc. locative LS. Lakṣaṇasthaḷa LS., Uddhar. Lakṣaṇasthaḷa, commentary on SūUddhar. m. masculine noun M. Mahānubhāva Maṅgaḷ. Maṅgaḷveḍhe Mar. Marāṭhī Maṭh. Maṭhgāv MBTK Marāṭhī Bhāṣecā Tanjāvarī Kośa, edited by S. G. Tulpule met. metaphorical meaning Moles. Molesworth Mone M. S. Mone, Marāṭhī Bhāṣece Vyākaraṇakāra va Vyākaraṇa-Prabandhakāra MS. Manusmṛti ms., mss. manuscript, manuscripts MSP. Marāṭhī Saṃśodhana Patrikā n. neuter noun
neg. negative num. adj. numerical adjective onomato. onomatopoeia, onomatopoeic ord. adj. ordinal adjective Pā. Pali Paḷas. Paḷasdev Paṇḍhar. Paṇḍharpūr pass. passive voice Pers. Persian pers. person I pers. first person II pers. second person III pers. third person Pk. Prakrit pl. plural PMKL Prācīna Marāṭhī Korīva Lekha, edited by S. G. Tulpule postpos. postposition poten. potential pp. past participle pr. present pr. part. present participle prepos. preposition pron. pronoun pron. adj. pronominal adjective R. I. M. P. Raeside Rāj. V. K. Rajvade Rājas. Rajasthani redupl. reduplicated, reduplication reflx. reflexive rel. pron. relative pronoun Sāvar. Sāvargāv sg. singular Sk. Sanskrit SR. Śārṅgadeva, Saṅgītaratnākara Śravaṇa. Śravaṇabeḷgoḷa Tam. Tamil Tel. Telugu Tul. S. G. Tulpule Unhak. Unhakdev Vāgbhaṭa, RRS. Vāgbhaṭa, Rasaratnasamuccaya Ved. Sk. Vedic Sanskrit vi. intransitive verb v.1. variant reading voc. vocative vt. transitive verb vt. caus. causative verb W. R. N. Velingkar W., JŚB. R. N. Velingkar, Jñāneśvarīcẽ Śabda-Bhāṇḍāra w.r. wrong reading
DATES OF SOURCE MATERIAL
The illustrative citations are arranged as follows: citations from the inscriptions precede citations from literary sources. Within each of these two categories, the citations are arranged in roughly chronological order. The dates we have used to determine the order of the principal literary sources are as follows (all dates are A.D.; the abbreviations are those of the sources, given above):
c. 1278 DvāL. LP. LU. c. 1280 AL. Jatī. c. 1286 DP. c. 1288 Go. 1290 Jñā. c. 1290 DṛP. MP. Sū. 1292 RS. c. 1292 Amṛ. c. 1295 CP. JñāHari. JñāGā. Muktā. MuktāHari. NiGā. NiHari. Sāvatā. Sopān. SopānHari. c. 1300 BhāPūjā. CāṅgGā. DU. Gorā. Janā. Kalā. Nar. NLMūrti. NLNām. NLPrasād. NLPūjā. MRS. RK. VD. Visobā. VVS. 1312 Śi. TS. 1313 UG. AS. SmṛSam. c.1313 SS. c.1316 VH. c.1320 Cau. GR. Parisā. ṚM. c. 1330 Cokhā., Cokhā(S). c. 1335 Nirmaḷā 1338 PV. c. 1350 IP. Nām. Param. Senā. ŚKC. UH. VS. 1353 SV. c. 1353 SP. c. 1400 P. Ḍaṅka c. 1418 JP. ṚV. c. 1420 PV. c. 1453 NV.
The inscriptions are all to be found in Tuḷpuḷe, Prācīna Marāṭhī Korīva Lekha; in V. B. Kolte, Mahārāṣṭrātīla Kāhī Tāmrapaṭa va Śilālekha (Mumbaī: Mahārāṣṭra Rājya Sāhitya āṇi Saṃskṛtī Maṇḍaḷ, 1987); or at the end of this Introduction, below. The dates of the inscriptions (all A.D.) are as follows:
1012 Akṣī SI., I (PMKL, no. 1) 1018 Kuḍal SI., I (Appendix, no. 1) 1060 Dive-Āgar CPI. (PMKL, no. 2) 1079 Bhor CPI. (PMKL, no. 60) 1080 Canaī SI. (Appendix, no. 2) 1081-1082 Vihār SI. (PMKL, no. 3) c. 1116-1117 Śravaṇabeḷgoḷa SI. (PMKL, no. 4) c. 1128 Dhābādev SI. (PMKL, no. 64) c. 1132 Maṅgaḷveḍhe SI., I (PMKL, no. 65) 1144 Āmbe SI., I (PMKL, no. 5) 1146 Bhāndak SI. (PMKL, no. 6) 1148-1149 Rāñjlī SI. (PMKL, no. 7) 1149 Garsoḷī SI. (Appendix, no. 3) 1150 Āgāśī SI. (PMKL, no. 8) 1155 Veture SI. (PMKL, no. 9) 1156 Cipḷūṇ SI (PMKL, no. 10) 1157 Paḷasdev SI. (PMKL, no. 11) c. 1158 Sāvargāv SI., III (PMKL, no. 66) 1163 Ter SI. (PMKL, no. 12) 1164 Sāvargāv SI., I (PMKL, no. 13) c. 1178 Āpegāv SI. (PMKL, no. 74) 1184 Lonāḍ SI. (PMKL, no. 14) 1185 Ṭhāṇe SI. (PMKL, no. 15) 1187 Paraḷ SI. (PMKL, no. 16) c. 1188 Āmbe SI., IV (PMKL, no. 67) 1189-1190 Paṇḍharpūr SI., I (PMKL, no. 17) 1202 Jālgāv CPI. (PMKL, no. 18) 1202? Cārṭhāṇe SI. (PMKL, no. 75) 1203 Māṇḍvī SI. (PMKL, no. 19) 1206 Veḷāpūr SI., I (PMKL, no. 20) 1207 Pāṭaṇ SI. (PMKL, no. 21) 1217 Āḷandī SI. (PMKL, no. 22) 1223 Ṭhāṇegāv SI. (Appendix, no. 4) Māṇkeśvar SI. (Appendix, no. 5) 1228-1229 Āmbe SI., II (PMKL, no. 23) 1238 Kolhāpur SI. 1239-1240 Nevāse SI. (PMKL, no. 24) 1240 Āmbe SI., III (PMKL, no. 25) 1242 Phulambrī SI., I (PMKL, no. 26) 1248 Mānūr SI. (Appendix, no. 6) 1251 Tāsgāv SI. (PMKL, no. 27) Biḍkīn SI., I (Appendix, no. 7) Biḍkīn SI., II (Appendix, no. 8) 1252 Rāṇebennur SI. (PMKL, no. 28) Birajvāḍī SI. (Appendix, no. 9) 1254-1255 Nāndgāv SI. (PMKL, no. 29) c. 1256 Mārkaṇḍī SI. (PMKL, no. 68) 1257 Kavalāpūr SI. (PMKL, no. 30) 1258 Kānhegāv SI. (PMKL, no. 31) 1259 Rānvaḍ SI. (PMKL, no. 32) 1260 Cāñje SI. (PMKL, no. 33) 1273-1277 Paṇḍharpūr SI., II (PMKL, no. 34) 1278 Āvaṇḍhe SI. (PMKL, no. 35) 1279 Kaśeḷī CPI. (PMKL, no. 36) Unhakdev SI. (PMKL, no. 37) 1282 Maṅgaḷveḍhe SI., II (PMKL, no. 38) 1285 Pūr SI. (PMKL, no. 39) 1289 Kālvār SI. (PMKL, no. 40) 1290 Mailaṅgī SI. (Appendix, no. 10) 1291 Akṣī SI., II (PMKL, no. 41) 1293-1294 Sāvargāv SI., II (PMKL, no. 42) 1298 Koprāḍ SI. (PMKL, no. 43) Ceul SI. (PMKL, no. 44) Rohilāgaḍh SI. (Appendix, no. 11) 1300 Veḷāpūr SI., II (PMKL, no. 45) Āgāsan SI. (PMKL, no. 46) Veḷāpūr SI., III (PMKL, no. 47) 1301 Hātnūr SI. (PMKL, no. 48) 1303 Koravalī SI. (Appendix, no. 12) 1305 Veḷāpūr SI., IV (PMKL, no. 50) 1305-1306 Kāṭā SI. (PMKL, no. 49) 1311 Paṇḍharpūr SI., III (PMKL, no. 51) 1320-1321 Bijāpūr SI. (PMKL, no. 52) 1348 Khāṭegrām CPI. (PMKL, no. 53) 1352 Pallikā CPI. (PMKL, no. 54) 1367-1368 Nāgāv SI. (PMKL, no. 55) 1395 Maṭhgāv SI. (PMKL, no. 56) 1398 Kāṭī SI. (PMKL, no. 57) 1402 Veḷus SI., I (PMKL, no. 58) c. 1408 Veḷus SI., II (PMKL, no. 69) 1414 Bāndoḍe SI. (PMKL, no. 59)
Undatable (but belonging to the Old Marathi period):
Aklūj SI. (Appendix, no. 13)
Biḍkīṇ SI., III (Appendix, no. 14)
Deuḷgāv Rāje SI. (PMKL, no. 71)
Kuḍal SI., II (Appendix, no. 15)
Kuḍal SI., III (Appendix, no. 16)
Paiṭhaṇ SI. (PMKL, no. 70)
Pārḍā SI. (Kolte, MKTS, no. 23)
Pāṭodā SI. (Appendix, no. 17)
Pavaī SI. (Kolte, MKTS, no. 26)
Phulambrī SI., II (PMKL, no. 72)
Rājpurī SI., II (PMKL, no. 76)
Sāvargāv SI., IV (PMKL, no. 73)
Vajhur SI. (Appendix, no. 18)
The text of some stone inscriptions traced after the publication of Tulpule's Prācīna Marāṭhī Korīva Lekha (1963).
1. Kuḍal SI., I, of A.D. 1018 (ed. Anand Kumbhar, in Navabhārata 28.10 [July, 1975], pp. 45-50)
१. ॐ स्वस्ति सकु ९४० काळयुक्त संवत्सरे माङ्कधनुळिकाळछेळा
२.पंडित त गछतो आयाता मछ...मि...छिमळनि १०००
३. वाछितो विजेयां होइवा
2. Canaī SI. of A.D. 1080 (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā [Aurangabad: Alakānandā Prakāśan, 1976], pp. 1-19)
१. स्वस्ति स्री सकु
२. १००२ रौद्र सं-
३. वत्सरे आषा-
४. ढ मासे अठि
५. सणिवार अं-
६. बे देसि महा-
७. कुमार श्री सिंघ-
८. ण देवे सेलवन
९. दीले छनै ग्रामे
१०. सोमेश्वरा स-
११. त्र भुमि गु (= ग = गद्याणक) ३०
१२. गुरवास मध्ये
१३. दाना जो फेडि
१४. तो स्वनु गर्द-
१५. भु चांडलु
3. Garsoḷī SI. of A.D. 1149 (ed. G. H. Khare and S. V. Citale, Marāṭhavādā Saṃśodhana Maṇdaḷa Annual, 1974, pp. 37-40)
१. ओनमास्तुंगसरश्चुंबी चंद्रचामरचा-
२. रवे त्रैलोक्यनगरारंड (भ) मूल-
३. स्तंभाय संभवे स्वस्ति श्री संवतु
४. १०७१ प्रमोदे संवत्सरांतर्गत जे-
५. ष्ठ पौर्णमास्यां रवौ समधिगत-
६. पंचमहासब्द महामंडले-
७. श्वर श्री उदयादित्य देवाराण-
८. कृतस्मिनुकाले महाप्रधान
९. देवरसरचित राजादित्य-
१०. देवराणेयां निदाति । पिंडी-
११. का दानी । पुजार्थे ग्रामें
१२. नितणे २०. देवासि अंग-
१३. भोग निवेदा मोडलेया भा-
१४. गलेया नितणे २०. पूजा नि-
१५. ब्बंध मला आदितवारी २०
१६. निचंका टं १० उभा । माजणे २० (३०)
१७. प्रतिदिवेया घाणा मुडावण
१८. ददाति जो फेडी करु करी तो
१९. पंचमहापातक केला होय ।
4. Ṭhaṇegāv SI. of A.D. 1223 (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 100-102)
१. स्वस्ति स्रि रणराषकु...देॐ ठाणग्रामकांतरी । राऊत स्री नाप-
२. ती दाऐंआ: ।। सकु ११४५ सुभान संवसरे: ।।
5. Māṇkeśvar SI. of A.D. 1223 (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 102-104)
१. स्वस्ति स्रि सकु ११४५ सुभानु
२. संवछरे माघ सुध १०
३. रवौ स्वस्ति स्री यादव कु-
५. कासभास्कर । स्रि सिंघण
६. देव:। स्रि माणकेस्वरी दत
6. Mānūr SI. of A.D. 1248 (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 74-86)
१. स्वस्ति स्री सकु ११७० कीलक संवछरे । स्वस्ति
२. स्री महामंडळेश्वर । जादवकुलटीलकु । स्री-
३. कान्हरदेॐ । तेयाचें द्वितीयरूप । मई राऊ-
४. तु देशोअधीपति । तेयाचा भीवु थोराथु
५. जे । मात्रर्णे केलें कीर्त्तन ।
7. Biḍkīṇ SI., I, of A.D. 1251 (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 87-92)
१. स्वस्ति स्री सकु ११७३ विरोधी (ना)-
२. म संवछरे सेठी चांगदेव (सत्रास)
३. दत मासं प्रति दान दाम ४ पा-
४....तेहाचा...जो फेडि तेहा-
५. चिए माए गाढौ । मंगल महा-
8. Biḍkīṇ SI., II, of A.D. 1251 (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 87-92)
१. स्वस्ति स्री सकु ११७३ विरोधी सं-
२. वछरे स्री चांगदेव पंच द्रम्म ,संभु-
३. वीस प्रति द्र. २ (०) पालि तेहाचे पुत्राचे
४. मंगलं महासिरी फेडि तेहाचि-
५. ए माए गाढौ
9. Birajvāḍī SI., of A.D. 1252 (ed. Harihar Thosar and Shantilal Puravar, in Pratiṣṭhāna, 19.2 [October 1972], pp. 16-20)
१. स्वस्ती श्री सकु ११७४ परीधावी
२. संवत्सरे बेंभ पटैलु मुष्यत्वा करौ-
३. नी तोरणं श्रीकृतना केले
10. Mailaṅgī SI. of A.D. 1290 (ed. B. Lewis Rice, Epigraphia Carnataca, Vol. III. Inscriptions in the Mysore District, Part I. [Bangalore: Mysore Government Press, 1894], p. 146, no. 31)
Śrīman-Nārāyaṇsyāmī bhūyāsur bhuvana-śriyē|
svasti samadhigata-pañcha-mahā-śabdamahā-maṇḍaḷēśvara Dvārāvatīpura-varādhīśvaraṃ Vāsantikā-dēvī-labdha-vara-prasādaṃ ripu-nṛipa-kirīṭa-tāḍita-pādaṃ sakaḷa-kaḷā-pārāyaṇaṃ Yādava-Nārāyaṇaṃ chāru-chāritraṃ parāṅganā-putra Chol̤a-kaṭaka-sūr̤ekār̤aṃripu-rāya-bēṇṭekāraṃ gaṇḍa-bhēuṇḍaṃ malaparoḷu gaṇḍam ity-ādi-nāmāvaḷī-virājitarappa śrīman-mahā-maṇḍaḷēśvaraṃ Taḷakāḍu-Gaṅgavāḍi-Noḷambavāḍi-Banavāse-pānuṅgallu-Halasige-Beḷuvala...bhuja-bala Vīra-Gaṅga Śanivāra-siddhi giri-durgga-malla chalad-aṅka-Rāman asahāya-śūra niśśaṅka-pratāpa Hoysaḷa śrī-Vīra-Ballāḷa-Dēvaru Erambarageya-Kuppadalu sukha-saṅkathā-vinōdadiṃ pṛithuvī-rājyaṃ geyyutt iralu tat-pāda-padmōpajīvi śrīman-mahā-pradhānarāda sarvvādhikāri Lāḍa-khaṇḍay-araḍi-haiyiraṃ mahā-pasāytiṃ parama-viśvāsi Kūrūra-Armmaṭivala-daṇṇāyakaru Tār̤anāḍu-Handināḍu-Kunāḍanu śrīmat-rājadhāni-Sātarūralu sukha-saṅkathā-vinōdadiṃ rājyaṃ geyyuttam iralu tat-pāda-padmōpajīvi Suṅkada Kōmaṇa-Kēśyaṇa-Heggaḍeya maga Chibbila-Heggaḍe Māïlaṅgiya Janārdana-dēvara śrī-kāryake...dīvigegaṃ naḍavaṃ...Saka-varśada 1118 neya Rākshasa-saṃvatsarada Yaksha-tadige Bihavāra sūryya-grahaṇadalu Eḍenāḍ Ālahaḷḷi...
11. Rohilāgadh SI. of A.D. 1298 (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 104-107)
१. स्री गज...स्वराय । सकु १२२०
२. सर्वधारी संवछरे फागुणु वदि १ सोमे (अद्ये-)
३. ह स्रे अ ,स्री...ण नागदेॐ पाटैला पुत्र
४. जगदेॐ पाटैलें कीर्त्तन केले । शुभं भवतु ।
12. Koravalī SI. of A.D. 1303 (ed. Anand Kumbhar, in Navabhārata 28.3 [December, 1974], pp. 69-73)
१. स्वस्ति श्री सकु १२२५ सोभीक्रत संवछरे
२. भाद्रपद ३० शुद्दे श्रीमत प्रौढप्रताप-
३. चक्रवर्ति श्री रामचंद्रदेव विज-
४. यराज्योदै तत्पादपद्मोपजीवी
५. ...चा माहाप्रभु माइदेव
६. ...दीप क्रहष...
७. ...कामतु मला धर ठ-
13. Aklūj SI. (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 94-98)
१. स्वस्ति स्री यादवनाथेण सिंघदेव सक
२. प्राजापत संवछर स्रिमतु भायसह-
३. णि क्रिदान्त सोमैय सहणि पुष्यवदि
४. उजपाला सकुमध्ये मवसथनि मित्रा
५. स्वप्रियचे व्रिति सबन मुख्य प्रतेपा-
14. Biḍkīṇ SI., III (ed. Brahmananda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 99-100)
१. राषसभुणीचा वासरा
२. ॐवीकारु तो म्हणे जगा भलें हों
15. Kuḍal SI., II (ed. Anand Kumbhar, in Pratiṣṭhāna, 27.4 [February-March, 1980], pp. 18-21)
१. श्री सिधनाथें देवों सिषरदसांआ क-
२. रवी करवीयेले गरयी हे
३. तोची हा सिषरदसाआ
४. स्वस्ति स्रिमतु सिधनाथाचा
५. दास सिषरदसाआ हेगरिगी
६. हसि...संऐ करवीले
16. Kuḍal SI., III (ed. Anand Kumbhar, in Pratiṣṭhāna 27.4 [February-March, 1980], pp. 18-21)
१. पंडिताचा नमस्कारु १०...नाथे कान्होबा-आ-वाचीतु
२. ... विजैं
३. क ध...मइकनाक
17. Pāṭodā SI. (ed. Brahmānanda Deshpande, Śodhamudrā, pp. 105-107)
१. राजमुद्रा समस्तांप्रती
२. शासन केले जे स्छानहापा-
३. सौनि वेष्टि घेणे नाही पालि त्या-
४. सि धर्मु पालि ना तो गाढऊ
18. Vajhur SI. (ed. S. Y. Citale)
१. स्वस्ति श्री माधावा सुतारचा लेकु हेमो: ।। तेयाचा साव्रेद्धी साग: ।।
२. दोघी मिलौनी सामाग्रु षंभा घडीएला: । एवं या षंभेयासि गद्य १०
Some stray Marathi words in old copper plate inscriptions:
1. Vāśim CPI. (ed. V. V. Mirashi and D. B. Mahajan, EI 26, pp. 137f.)
आम्हीहिं(āmhīhĩ) 1.7, आपुणो (āpuṇo) 1.8, चउत्थ (cauttha) 1.18, ...जो (...jo) 1.26
2. Mānor CPI. (ed. V. V. Mirashi, Saṃśodhana Muktāvalī, 3, pp. 142f.)
सोनार चण्डहरि (Sonāra Caṇḍahari) 1.13
3. Nārāyaṇgāv CPI. (ed. V. A. Bambardekar and Moreshwar G. Dikshit, New Indian Antiquary 6.7 [October 1943], pp. 156-59. Śake 933 [A.D. 1011])
खडक (khaḍaka) 1. 17-18, चिंचवृक्ष (ciñcavṛkṣa) 1.20, गोहवारि (gohavāri) 1.23, तणीका (taṇīkā) 1.25
Sites of Old Marathi Inscriptions and Literary Activity
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