Digital Dictionaries of South Asia
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A comparative and etymological dictionary of the Nepali language

[page xx]



A list of these languages grouped in their families will be found on p. 655.

A. = Assamese
amg. = Ardhamāgadhī
Ap. = Apabhraṁśa
Ar. = Arabic
arm. = Armenian (dialect of Romani)
AS. = Anglo-Saxon
Aś = Inscriptions of Aśoka
as. = Asiatic (dialect of Romani)
ashk. = Ashkun (dialect of Dardic)
Austro-as. = Austro-asiatic
B. = Bengali
bagh. = Baghātī (dialect of West Pahari)
Bal. = Baluchi (Balūcī)
bhad. = Bhadrawāhī (dialect of West Pahari)
bhal. = Bhalesī (dialect of West Pahari)
bhaṭ. = Bhaṭeālī (dialect of West Pahari)
Bi. = Bihārī dialects
Brah. = Brāhūī
buddh. = Buddhistic (Sanskrit)
Bur. = Burushaski (Burušaskī)
cam. = Cameālī (dialect of West Pahari)
Can. = Canarese
chat. = Chattīsgaṛhī (dialect of E. Hindi)
class. = Classical (Sanskrit)
CPah. = Central Pahāṛī
cur. = Curāhī (dialect of West Pahari)
D. = Dardic
dak. = Dakkhinī (dialect of Hindustānī)
dam. = Damēlī (dialect of Kafiri)
Darj. = Darjeeling (dialect of Nepali)
dhau. = Dhauli (inscription of Aśoka)
ḍog. = Ḍogṛī (dialect of Panjabi)
Drav. = Dravidian
E. = Eastern dialect of Nepali
Eng. = English
ep. = Epic (Sanskrit)
Esuk. = East Suketī (dialect of West Pahari)
eur. = European (dialect of Romani)
Fr. = French
G. = Gujarātī
gā. = Gādī (dialect of West Pahari)
gār. = Gārvī (dialect of Dardic)
Gaṛh. = Gaṛhwālī
gaw. = Gawarbatī (dialect of Dardic)
gil. = Gilgitī (dialect of Shina)
gir. = Girnār (inscription of Aśoka)
Gk. = Greek
gk. = Greek (dialect of European Romani)
Gnd. = Gondī
Goth. = Gothic
Grg. = Gurung
gur. = Gurẽsī (dialect of Shina)
H. = Hindustānī (i.e. Ūrdū, Standard Hindī, and Hindī dialects)
Heb. = Hebrew
IA. = Indo-Aryan
IE. = Indo-European
Indo-ir. = Indo-iranian
Ir. = Iranian
It. = Italian
K. = Kashmiri (Kāśmīrī)
Kaf. = Kafīrī (dialects)
kal. = Kalasha (Kalāšā) (dialect of Dardic)
kāl. = Kālsī (inscription of Aśoka)
Kan. = Kanarese
kan. = Kanaujī (dialect of West Hindi)
kāṅ. or kgr. = Kāṅgrī (dialect of West Pahari)
kati = Katī or Bashgali (dialect of Kafiri)
kgr., see kāṅ
Khar. = The language of the Kharoṣṭhī Inscriptions, edited by A. M. Boyer, E. J. Rapson, E. Senart
kho. = Khowar (Khovāˊr) or Citrālī (dialect of Dardic)
kiś = Kiśtawāṛī (dialect of Kashmiri or West Pahari)
kiũ. = Kiũṭhalī (dialect of Kashmiri or West Pahari)
koc. = Kocī (dialect of West Pahari)
koh. = Kohistānī (dialect of Shina)
Ku. = Kumaonī
kuḷ. = Kuḷuī (dialect of West Pahari)
Kur. = Kurukh
Kurd. = Kurdish.
L. = Lahndā
Lat. = Latin
Lith. = Lithuanian
M. = Marāṭhī
mai. = Maiyã ̄ (dialect of Dardic)
mal. = Malayāḷam
mald. = Maldive (dialect of Singhalese)
man. = Mandeāḷī (dialect of West Pahari)
mān. = Mānsehrā (inscription of Aśoka)
mg. = Māgadhī (dialect of Prakrit)
Mgr. = Magar
mh. = Mahārāṣṭrī (dialect of Prakrit)
MI. = Middle Indian
MIrish = Middle Irish
mult. = Multānī (dialect of Lahnda)
N. = Nepali or Khaskurā
nAv. = New (later) Avestan
New. = Newārī
O. = Oṛiyā
OHG. = Old High German
OIce. = Old Icelandic
ONorse = Old Norse
OPers. = Old Persian
OSlav. = Old Slavonic or Old Bulgarian
P. = Pan̑jābī
p. = Pales (dialect of Shina)
Pa. = Pāli
pāḍ. = Pāḍarī (dialect of West Pahari)
paiś. = Paiśācī (dialect of Prakrit)
pal. = Palola (dialect of Dardic)
paṅ. = Paṅgwālī (dialect of West Pahari)
pash. = Pashai (Pašaīˊ) (dialect of Dardic)
Pehl. = Pehlevī
Pers. = Persian
Pk. = Prakrit (Prākr̥ta)
pog. = Pogulī (dialect of West Pahari)
Port. = Portuguese
pras. = Prasun (dialect of Kafiri)
Rāj. = Rājasthānī dialects
rām. = Rāmbanī (dialect of West Pahari)
Rom. = Romani or Gypsy (European Romani, unless otherwise qualified)
S. = Sindhī
ś. = Śaurasenī (dialect of Prakrit)
Sant. = Santālī
Sgh. = Singhalese
Sh. = Shina (Ṣiṇā)
shāh. = Shāhbāzgarhī (inscription of Aśoka)
sir. = Sirājī (dialect of West Pahari)
Sk. = Sanskrit
Sogd. = Sogdian
suk. = Suketī (dialect of West Pahari)
sv. = Savi (dialect of Dardic)
syr. = Syrian (dialect of Romani)
Tam. = Tamil
Tel. = Telugu
Tib. = Tibetan
tir. = Tīrāhī (dialect of Dardic)
tor. = Torwālī (dialect of Dardic)
ved. = Vedic
vill. = village (dialect of Kashmiri)
waig. = Waigeli (Vāigalī) (dialect of Kafiri)
W. = Western dialect of Nepali
WPah. = Western Pahāṛī dialects
Yaghn. = Yaghnobi
Yazgh. = Yazghulami
Yid. = Yidgha

[page xxi]


abl. = ablative
absol. = absolutive
Add. = Addenda
adj. = adjective
adv. = adverb
anal. = analogical
anon. = anonymous
c. = cum, with or governing
C = Central
caus. = causative
cf. = confer, compare
Christ. = Christian
cmpd. = compound
conj. = conjunction
conn. = connected
cont. = continuous
contam. = contaminated with
corr. = corrupt
der. = derived from
dial. = dialectally
du. = dual
E = East
ed. = edition, edited by
e.g. = exempli gratia, for example
emph. = emphatic
euphem. = euphemism
ex. = example
ext. = extension
f. = feminine
fr. = from
gram. = grammar
honor. = honorific
id. = idem, the same (meaning or form)
i.e. = id est, that is
imper. = imperative
improb. = improbably
incorr. = incorrect
inf. = infinitive
inscr. = inscription
intens. = intensive
interj. = interjection
intr. = intransitive
l. = learned
lit. = literally
loc. = locative
lw. = loanword
m. = masculine
M = middle
math. = mathematics
med. = medical
met. = metaphor, metaphorical
metath. = metathesis
mil. = military
Mod. = modern
n. = neuter
n.d. = no date
neg. = negative
nom. prop. = nomen proprium, proper name
O = old
obsol. = obsolete
onom. = onomatopoeic
opp. = opposed or opposite
orig. = originally
p. = page
part. = participle
partic. = particularly
pass. = passive
perh. = perhaps
phr. = phrase
pl. = plural
poet. = poetical
pop. = popular
poss. = possibly
postp. = postposition
pres. = present
prob. = probably
pron. = pronoun
pronom. = pronominal
pvb. = proverb
q.v. = quod vide, which see
redup. = reduplication of
rel. = relative
s. = substantive
sg. = singular
s.v. = sub verbo, under the word
tea = Tea-garden terminology
tr. = transitive
usu. = usually
v. = vide, see
var. lect. = varia lectio, different reading
vb. = verb
viz. = videlicet, namely
v.s.v. = vide sub verbo, see under the word
vulg. = vulgar
W = West
w. = with
+ = contaminated with
> = becomes
< = is derived from
* indicates a hypothetical form
= indicates 'is the same as'
˚ indicates that the preceding letter or letters stand for the word in the form given at the head of the article
? (except when following a question in an example or quotation) indicates that a form, meaning, or explanation is doubtful


Ai. Gr. = J. Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik

AO. = Acta Orientalia

Ashkun = G. Morgenstierne, The Language of the Ashkun Kafirs (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, ii)

Beames Comp. Gr. = J. Beames, A Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages of India

Beng. Lang. = S. K. Chatterji, The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language

Bh. = Bhānubhakta

Biddulph = Major Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh

BR. = O. Böhtlingk and R. Roth, Sanskrit-Wörterbuch

BSL. = Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris

Bull.SOS. = Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, London

Eng. Nep. Dict. = R. Kilgour and H. C. Duncan, English-Nepali Dictionary

Etym. Pashto = G. Morgenstierne, An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto

Etym. Sgh. = W. Geiger, Etymologie des Singhalesischen

Etym. Wb. der ai. Spr. = C. C. Uhlenbeck, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch der altindischen Sprache

Grierson Piśāca = G. A. Grierson, The Piśāca-Languages of North-Western India

Gypsies of Wales = J. Sampson, The Dialect of the Gypsies of Wales

Hobson-Jobson = H. Yule and A. C. Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, new ed. by W. Crooke

Hoernle Comp. Gr. = A. F. R. Hoernle, A Comparative Grammar of the Gaudian Languages

Indo-Ir. Frontier Lang. = G. Morgenstierne, Indo-Iranian Frontier Languages

Inscr. Aśoka = E. Hultzsch, Inscriptions of Aśoka

J.A. = Journal asiatique

JAOS. = Journal of the American Oriental Society

JASB. = Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal

J. Bloch = J. Bloch, La Formation de la Langue marathe

JGLS. = Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society

JRAS. = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

Leitner = G. W. Leitner, The Languages and Races of Dardistan. Dardistan in 1866, 1886, and 1893.

LSI. = Linguistic Survey of India

Macdonell Ved. Gr. = A. A. Macdonell, Vedic Grammar

MBh. = Mahābhārata

Meillet Vieux Perse = A Meillet, Grammaire du vieux Perse

Meyer-Lübke Rom. et. Wb. = Meyer-Lübke, Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch

Miklosich Mundarten = F. Miklosich, Über die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europa's

Morg. = Personal communication from Professor G. Morgenstierne

MSL. = Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique de Paris

naigh. = Naighaṇṭu

NED. = New English Dictionary

Npers. Etym. = P. Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie

Pischel Gr. Pk. = R. Pischel, Grammatik der Prakrit-sprachen

Piś. Lang. = G. A. Grierson, The Piśāca-Languages

Pre-A. Pre-Drav. = J. Przyluski, Pre-Aryan and Pre-Dravidian

Report = G. Morgenstierne, Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan

Rocznik Or. = Rocznik Orjentalistyczny, Lwów

RV. = R̥gveda

Sino-Ir. = B. Laufer, Sino-Iranica

Whitney Sk. Gr. = W. D.

Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar

ZDMG. = Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft

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