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A comparative and etymological dictionary of the Nepali language

[page xx]

ABBREVIATIONS

LANGUAGES

A list of these languages grouped in their families will be found on p. 655.

A. = Assamese
amg. = Ardham?gadh?
Ap. = Apabhra??a
Ar. = Arabic
arm. = Armenian (dialect of Romani)
AS. = Anglo-Saxon
A? = Inscriptions of A?oka
as. = Asiatic (dialect of Romani)
ashk. = Ashkun (dialect of Dardic)
Austro-as. = Austro-asiatic
B. = Bengali
bagh. = Bagh?t? (dialect of West Pahari)
Bal. = Baluchi (Bal?c?)
bhad. = Bhadraw?h? (dialect of West Pahari)
bhal. = Bhales? (dialect of West Pahari)
bha?. = Bha?e?l? (dialect of West Pahari)
Bi. = Bih?r? dialects
Brah. = Br?h??
buddh. = Buddhistic (Sanskrit)
Bur. = Burushaski (Buru?ask?)
cam. = Came?l? (dialect of West Pahari)
Can. = Canarese
chat. = Chatt?sga?h? (dialect of E. Hindi)
class. = Classical (Sanskrit)
CPah. = Central Pah???
cur. = Cur?h? (dialect of West Pahari)
D. = Dardic
dak. = Dakkhin? (dialect of Hindust?n?)
dam. = Dam?l? (dialect of Kafiri)
Darj. = Darjeeling (dialect of Nepali)
dhau. = Dhauli (inscription of A?oka)
?og. = ?og?? (dialect of Panjabi)
Drav. = Dravidian
E. = Eastern dialect of Nepali
Eng. = English
ep. = Epic (Sanskrit)
Esuk. = East Suket? (dialect of West Pahari)
eur. = European (dialect of Romani)
Fr. = French
G. = Gujar?t?
g?. = G?d? (dialect of West Pahari)
g?r. = G?rv? (dialect of Dardic)
Ga?h. = Ga?hw?l?
gaw. = Gawarbat? (dialect of Dardic)
gil. = Gilgit? (dialect of Shina)
gir. = Girn?r (inscription of A?oka)
Gk. = Greek
gk. = Greek (dialect of European Romani)
Gnd. = Gond?
Goth. = Gothic
Grg. = Gurung
gur. = Gur?s? (dialect of Shina)
H. = Hindust?n? (i.e. ?rd?, Standard Hind?, and Hind? dialects)
Heb. = Hebrew
IA. = Indo-Aryan
IE. = Indo-European
Indo-ir. = Indo-iranian
Ir. = Iranian
It. = Italian
K. = Kashmiri (K??m?r?)
Kaf. = Kaf?r? (dialects)
kal. = Kalasha (Kal???) (dialect of Dardic)
k?l. = K?ls? (inscription of A?oka)
Kan. = Kanarese
kan. = Kanauj? (dialect of West Hindi)
k??. or kgr. = K??gr? (dialect of West Pahari)
kati = Kat? or Bashgali (dialect of Kafiri)
kgr., see k??
Khar. = The language of the Kharo??h? Inscriptions, edited by A. M. Boyer, E. J. Rapson, E. Senart
kho. = Khowar (Khov??r) or Citr?l? (dialect of Dardic)
ki? = Ki?taw??? (dialect of Kashmiri or West Pahari)
kiu?. = Kiu??hal? (dialect of Kashmiri or West Pahari)
koc. = Koc? (dialect of West Pahari)
koh. = Kohist?n? (dialect of Shina)
Ku. = Kumaon?
ku?. = Ku?u? (dialect of West Pahari)
Kur. = Kurukh
Kurd. = Kurdish.
L. = Lahnd?
Lat. = Latin
Lith. = Lithuanian
M. = Mar??h?
mai. = Maiyã ? (dialect of Dardic)
mal. = Malay??am
mald. = Maldive (dialect of Singhalese)
man. = Mande??? (dialect of West Pahari)
m?n. = M?nsehr? (inscription of A?oka)
mg. = M?gadh? (dialect of Prakrit)
Mgr. = Magar
mh. = Mah?r???r? (dialect of Prakrit)
MI. = Middle Indian
MIrish = Middle Irish
mult. = Mult?n? (dialect of Lahnda)
N. = Nepali or Khaskur?
nAv. = New (later) Avestan
New. = New?r?
O. = O?iy?
OHG. = Old High German
OIce. = Old Icelandic
ONorse = Old Norse
OPers. = Old Persian
OSlav. = Old Slavonic or Old Bulgarian
P. = Pan?j?b?
p. = Pales (dialect of Shina)
Pa. = P?li
p??. = P??ar? (dialect of West Pahari)
pai?. = Pai??c? (dialect of Prakrit)
pal. = Palola (dialect of Dardic)
pa?. = Pa?gw?l? (dialect of West Pahari)
pash. = Pashai (Pa?a??) (dialect of Dardic)
Pehl. = Pehlev?
Pers. = Persian
Pk. = Prakrit (Pr?kr?ta)
pog. = Pogul? (dialect of West Pahari)
Port. = Portuguese
pras. = Prasun (dialect of Kafiri)
R?j. = R?jasth?n? dialects
r?m. = R?mban? (dialect of West Pahari)
Rom. = Romani or Gypsy (European Romani, unless otherwise qualified)
S. = Sindh?
?. = ?aurasen? (dialect of Prakrit)
Sant. = Sant?l?
Sgh. = Singhalese
Sh. = Shina (?i??)
sh?h. = Sh?hb?zgarh? (inscription of A?oka)
sir. = Sir?j? (dialect of West Pahari)
Sk. = Sanskrit
Sogd. = Sogdian
suk. = Suket? (dialect of West Pahari)
sv. = Savi (dialect of Dardic)
syr. = Syrian (dialect of Romani)
Tam. = Tamil
Tel. = Telugu
Tib. = Tibetan
tir. = T?r?h? (dialect of Dardic)
tor. = Torw?l? (dialect of Dardic)
ved. = Vedic
vill. = village (dialect of Kashmiri)
waig. = Waigeli (V?igal?) (dialect of Kafiri)
W. = Western dialect of Nepali
WPah. = Western Pah??? dialects
Yaghn. = Yaghnobi
Yazgh. = Yazghulami
Yid. = Yidgha


[page xxi]

GENERAL

abl. = ablative
absol. = absolutive
Add. = Addenda
adj. = adjective
adv. = adverb
anal. = analogical
anon. = anonymous
c. = cum, with or governing
C = Central
caus. = causative
cf. = confer, compare
Christ. = Christian
cmpd. = compound
conj. = conjunction
conn. = connected
cont. = continuous
contam. = contaminated with
corr. = corrupt
der. = derived from
dial. = dialectally
du. = dual
E = East
ed. = edition, edited by
e.g. = exempli gratia, for example
emph. = emphatic
euphem. = euphemism
ex. = example
ext. = extension
f. = feminine
fr. = from
gram. = grammar
honor. = honorific
id. = idem, the same (meaning or form)
i.e. = id est, that is
imper. = imperative
improb. = improbably
incorr. = incorrect
inf. = infinitive
inscr. = inscription
intens. = intensive
interj. = interjection
intr. = intransitive
l. = learned
lit. = literally
loc. = locative
lw. = loanword
m. = masculine
M = middle
math. = mathematics
med. = medical
met. = metaphor, metaphorical
metath. = metathesis
mil. = military
Mod. = modern
n. = neuter
n.d. = no date
neg. = negative
nom. prop. = nomen proprium, proper name
O = old
obsol. = obsolete
onom. = onomatopoeic
opp. = opposed or opposite
orig. = originally
p. = page
part. = participle
partic. = particularly
pass. = passive
perh. = perhaps
phr. = phrase
pl. = plural
poet. = poetical
pop. = popular
poss. = possibly
postp. = postposition
pres. = present
prob. = probably
pron. = pronoun
pronom. = pronominal
pvb. = proverb
q.v. = quod vide, which see
redup. = reduplication of
rel. = relative
s. = substantive
sg. = singular
s.v. = sub verbo, under the word
tea = Tea-garden terminology
tr. = transitive
usu. = usually
v. = vide, see
var. lect. = varia lectio, different reading
vb. = verb
viz. = videlicet, namely
v.s.v. = vide sub verbo, see under the word
vulg. = vulgar
W = West
w. = with
+ = contaminated with
> = becomes
< = is derived from
* indicates a hypothetical form
= indicates 'is the same as'
? indicates that the preceding letter or letters stand for the word in the form given at the head of the article
? (except when following a question in an example or quotation) indicates that a form, meaning, or explanation is doubtful

BOOKS

Ai. Gr. = J. Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik

AO. = Acta Orientalia

Ashkun = G. Morgenstierne, The Language of the Ashkun Kafirs (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, ii)

Beames Comp. Gr. = J. Beames, A Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages of India

Beng. Lang. = S. K. Chatterji, The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language

Bh. = Bh?nubhakta

Biddulph = Major Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh

BR. = O. Böhtlingk and R. Roth, Sanskrit-Wörterbuch

BSL. = Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris

Bull.SOS. = Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, London

Eng. Nep. Dict. = R. Kilgour and H. C. Duncan, English-Nepali Dictionary

Etym. Pashto = G. Morgenstierne, An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto

Etym. Sgh. = W. Geiger, Etymologie des Singhalesischen

Etym. Wb. der ai. Spr. = C. C. Uhlenbeck, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch der altindischen Sprache

Grierson Pi??ca = G. A. Grierson, The Pi??ca-Languages of North-Western India

Gypsies of Wales = J. Sampson, The Dialect of the Gypsies of Wales

Hobson-Jobson = H. Yule and A. C. Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, new ed. by W. Crooke

Hoernle Comp. Gr. = A. F. R. Hoernle, A Comparative Grammar of the Gaudian Languages

Indo-Ir. Frontier Lang. = G. Morgenstierne, Indo-Iranian Frontier Languages

Inscr. A?oka = E. Hultzsch, Inscriptions of A?oka

J.A. = Journal asiatique

JAOS. = Journal of the American Oriental Society

JASB. = Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal

J. Bloch = J. Bloch, La Formation de la Langue marathe

JGLS. = Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society

JRAS. = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

Leitner = G. W. Leitner, The Languages and Races of Dardistan. Dardistan in 1866, 1886, and 1893.

LSI. = Linguistic Survey of India

Macdonell Ved. Gr. = A. A. Macdonell, Vedic Grammar

MBh. = Mah?bh?rata

Meillet Vieux Perse = A Meillet, Grammaire du vieux Perse

Meyer-Lübke Rom. et. Wb. = Meyer-Lübke, Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch

Miklosich Mundarten = F. Miklosich, Über die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europa's

Morg. = Personal communication from Professor G. Morgenstierne

MSL. = Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique de Paris

naigh. = Naigha??u

NED. = New English Dictionary

Npers. Etym. = P. Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie

Pischel Gr. Pk. = R. Pischel, Grammatik der Prakrit-sprachen

Pi?. Lang. = G. A. Grierson, The Pi??ca-Languages

Pre-A. Pre-Drav. = J. Przyluski, Pre-Aryan and Pre-Dravidian

Report = G. Morgenstierne, Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan

Rocznik Or. = Rocznik Orjentalistyczny, Lwów

RV. = R?gveda

Sino-Ir. = B. Laufer, Sino-Iranica

Whitney Sk. Gr. = W. D.

Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar

ZDMG. = Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft

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