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A comparative and etymological dictionary of the Nepali language

[page xi]

NOTE ON THE FORM OF CONJUNCT LETTERS

Experience gained in the course of printing this book has shown that in forming conjunct letters it will sometimes be advisable to desert the forms more usually employed for Sanskrit, especially those in which the letters are arranged vertically, and to use as far as possible only the horizontal (left to right) arrangement.

By this method each letter, except r, will have two forms only. Vowels: (1) initially or after a vowel, e.g. ? i; (2) after a consonant, e.g. ?? ki. Consonants: (1) before a vowel, e.g. ? ka, ?? ?u; (2) before a consonant, ??? kta, ???? ??u. These two forms of each letter are shown in the columns below.

The letter r has three forms: (1) initially before a vowel, or between vowels, ? ra, ??? are; (2) between consonant and vowel, ? e.g. ??? kra; (3) before a consonant, ?? e.g. ???? arka. For ??? ry the form ??? should be used.

In the final position the absence of a vowel should be indicated always with the vir?m: thus ??? ??. Since the consonant y never occurs before a consonant, its second form ? is used to form a conjunct letter with preceding consonants, viz. with ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, which have no second, or preconsonantal form of their own: thus ??? ?ya. Otherwise the preconsonantal form of these letters should be indicated by vir?m, thus ??? ??a (rather than ???).

For k? and jn?, occurring only in loanwords from Sanskrit, the special forms ??? and ??? may be retained.

a?
???
i??
???
u??
???
r???
e??
ai??
o??
au??
~?
??
?:
k???
kh???
g???
gh???
??
c???
ch?
j???
jh???
n????
??
?h?
??
?h?
????
??
[?h?]
t???
th???
d?
dh???
n???
p???
ph???
b???
bh???
m???
y???
r?? or ??
l???
w or v???
????
????
s???
h?
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