NOTE ON THE FORM OF CONJUNCT LETTERS
Experience gained in the course of printing this book has shown that in forming conjunct letters it will sometimes be advisable to desert the forms more usually employed for Sanskrit, especially those in which the letters are arranged vertically, and to use as far as possible only the horizontal (left to right) arrangement.
By this method each letter, except r, will have two forms only. Vowels: (1) initially or after a vowel, e.g. इ i; (2) after a consonant, e.g. कि ki. Consonants: (1) before a vowel, e.g. क ka, टु ṭu; (2) before a consonant, क्त kta, ट्टु ṭṭu. These two forms of each letter are shown in the columns below.
The letter r has three forms: (1) initially before a vowel, or between vowels, र ra, अरे are; (2) between consonant and vowel, ् e.g. क्र kra; (3) before a consonant, र् e.g. अर्क arka. For य्र ry the form र्य should be used.
In the final position the absence of a vowel should be indicated always with the virām: thus आट् āṭ. Since the consonant y never occurs before a consonant, its second form य is used to form a conjunct letter with preceding consonants, viz. with ङ, छ, ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ड़, द, which have no second, or preconsonantal form of their own: thus ट्य ṭya. Otherwise the preconsonantal form of these letters should be indicated by virām, thus ट्ट ṭṭa (rather than ट्ट).
For kṣ and jn̑, occurring only in loanwords from Sanskrit, the special forms क्ष and ज्ञ may be retained.
a अ ā आ ा i इ ि ī ई ी u उ ु ū ऊ ू r̥ ऋ ृ e ए े ai ऐ ै o ओ ो au औ ौ ~ ँ ṁ ं ḥ : k क क् kh ख ख् g ग ग् gh घ घ् ṅ ङ c च च् ch छ j ज ज् jh झ झ् n̑ ञ ञ् ṭ ट ṭh ठ ḍ ड ḍh ढ ṇ ण ण् ṛ ड़ [ṛh ढ़] t त त् th थ थ् d द dh ध ध् n न न् p प प् ph फ फ् b ब ब् bh भ भ् m म म् y य य् r र् or ् ˁ l ल ल् w or v व व् ś श श् ş ष ष् s स स् h ह