348 - THE I-DIAN EM1úPIRE
(3) To this rule the first wave of Indo-Aryans formed the
sole exception, for the reasons given on pages 300-3.
(4) The social grouping of the Indian people comprises both
tribes and castes. We may distinguish three types of tribe
and seven types of caste.
(5) Both tribes and castes are subdivided into endogamous,
exogamous, and hypergamous groups.
(6) Of the exogamous groups a large number are totemistic.
(7) Castes can be classified only on the basis of social
precedence, but no scheme of classification can be framed for
the whole of India.
(8) The Indian theory of caste was perhaps derived from
Persia. It has no foundation in fact, but is universally accepted
(g) The origin of caste is from the nature of the case an
insoluble problem. We can only frame more or less plausible
conjectures, derived from the analogy of observed facts. The
particular conjecture now put forward is based-firstly, upon
the correspondence that can be traced between certain caste
gradations and the variations of physical type; secondly, on the
development of mixed races from stocks of different colour; and
thirdly, on the influence of fiction.
Chapters ix (Marriage) and xi (Caste, Tribe, and Race) of the Report on
the Census of India, 19go, and Ethnographic Appendices.
Sir D. Ibbetson.-Report on the Punjab Census, I88I.
H. H. Risley.--Tribes and Castes of Bengal (Calcutta, I902).
Colonel Dalton.-Eithnology of Bengal (Calcutta, i872).
J. C. Nesfield.-Brief I'iew of the Caste System of the North-lWestern
]'rovinces and Oudh (Allahabad, I885).
W. Crooke.--Tribes and Castes of the North- Western Provinces and
Oudh (Calcutta, x896).
Sir H. M. Elliot.-Races of the Aorth-tWestern Provinces (revised by
J. Beames, IS69).
5M. A. Sherring.-Hindu Tribes and Castes (1872-8I).
Dr. J. Wilson.-Indian Caste (IS77 .
E. Senart.--Les Castes dans Plnde (Paris, i896).
Sir A. C. Lyall.-Asiatic Studies (1899L.
R. Fick.-Dic sociale Gliedertng ims nordostlichen Indien su Buddha's
Zeit (Kiel, 1897).
Madras Government Mluseum Bulletins, published at the Local Govern-
ment Press since I894.