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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 1, p. 349.


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CHAPTER VII
LANGUAGES
OUR knowledge of most of the modern vernaculars of India Linguistic
has been much extended during the interval which has elapsed progress.
since the last edition of this Gazetteer was published. Not
only have the highways of inquiry been widened and more
clearly defined, but pioneers have ventured into the little-
touched jungle of uncultivated dialects. There they have
opened out paths which have sometimes led to unexpected
results, and have disclosed secrets little suspected by those
whose feet were necessarily confined to the main track that
had previously been laid down with so much skill and energy.
The progress has been most conspicuous in regard to the
Aryan languages. The late Mr. Beames's Comparative Gram-
mar, a book to the learning and lucidity of which worthy
tribute was paid in i886, was quickly succeeded by the similar
work of Dr. Hoernle. The Grammar of Eastern rindi,
written by that eminent scholar, occupied much the same
ground as the volumes of Mr. Beames, but carried the inquiries
farther, and cast the main results into a form which has
ever since been almost universally accepted. What has sub-
sequently been done has principally dealt with matters of
detail, or with the investigation of new languages of which
satisfactory grammars did not previously exist.
Our knowledge of the Indo-Chinese languages has also
made considerable progress. The Assam Government has
liberally encouraged the production of textbooks of the forms
of speech current in that polyglot territory; and, in Europe,
scholars like Professor E. Kuhn, of Munich, Professor Conrady,
formerly of Leipzig, and Pater W. Schmidt, of Vienna, have
succeeded in reducing to something like order the amazing con-
fusion which hitherto existed in this department of philology.
The MundA languages, too, have received considerable atten-
tion. New grammars and dictionaries have seen the light,
and, in Europe, Scandinavian scholars have made a special
study of this family of tongues. Theories of the most wide-



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