A. Akbar the Great, his tolerance of Hindu-
ism, 434; of Christianity, 442.
Aboriginal races and languages of India; Aligarh, the Anglo-Oriental College at,
probably Dravidian, 298, 299, and 438; representative of the progressive
Munda, 382, 383; the SantLls, 43r, party in Islam, 438.
296; the tribes of Chota Nagpur, 296, Allahabad, meteorology of, 126.
308, 309; the Khonds of Orissa, 309; Alluvial remains: Elephas nzamadiceus,
the Gonds, 428; a leaf-clad Munda Ioo; 2ippopotanrus, loo; Bos nama-
tribe, speaking Julng, 3S4; Mongo- dzues, Ioo.
loid tribes of the Assam hills, 309, Anaimalai Hills, the, physical aspects of,
387; their nature-worship found in 40; meteorology of, 114.
the Mahlbharata, 418, 432; in the Andamans, the, geology of, go, 94;
cult of Siva, 420; in Animism, a con- recent isolation of, 99; botany of, 203,
stituent of many creeds and the basis 204; their language Andamanese, really
of the present religion of the peasant, a group of agglutinating languages,
432, 433. See also Dravidian, Munda, 389.
Tribes, Animism, Totemism, Exo- Animism, what is meant by the term,
gamy. 430,43I,473 (footnote); amassofprim-
Afghanistan, its physical aspects, rr- itive beliefs, the real faith of the people,
14; the chief passes to, io; its four 430; largely non-Aryan in its origin
great river basins, rI; absorption of and distribution, 432; prevalent at all
its rivers in deserts, I1, 12; its ex- times and everywhere, 432; census
tensive system of irrigation, I2 ; its returns of only nominal value, 432 ; in
mountains, 12, 13; its valleys, 13, I4 ; its purest form among the forest races of
the Hindu Kush, 12 ; dependent upon the Peninsula and Himalayas, 431; their
storms for rain, I40; ethnology of, kingdoms and dynasties, 431 ; its effect
293; ethnography of the Afghan type on Islam, 435 ; its fusion with Islam in
of tribe, 309, 330; its language, the Pachpiriyas, 435, 436; the religion
Pashto, an Iranian tongue, 354; its of 3 per cent. of the population, 471 ;
distribution, character, dialects, litera- the regional distribution of Animists,
ture, and the number of its speakers, 472, 473.
354, 355. Antelopes, three genera peculiar to the
Age, statistics of, 478; mean age of Peninsula, 234; the Nilgai, the Four-
living, 24.9 years, 478; higher in horned Antelope, the Indian Antelope
Aryan N. India than in Mongolian and or ' black buck,' their distribution,
Dravidian Bengal and Bombay, 478; haunts and habits, 235; the Tibetan
influenced by ratio of death and birth Antelope, 235; Gazelles, 235.
rates,by famines, 478; a table of age- Anthropometry, as applied to Ethnology,
distribution of the population in India 284, 285; data of, in India, 286, 287;
and England, 5r4; mortality and ex- methods of, applied to head, 288, 289,
pectation of life at different ages in nose, 289, 290, orbit of eye, 291, stature,
India and England, with a table, 5i4- 292; conditions favourable to anthro-
5s6 ; age as a factor in mortality from pometry and its peculiar value in India,
enteric, 528. See also Infantile Mor- 285, 286, 288.
tality, Census Table VII. Apabhramsa (' corrupt'), title given to
Aghoris, a Saiva sect, eaters of filth and the true vernaculars after the Prakrits
corpses, 42I. became literary and polished, 36I;
Agni, the Vedic god of fire, 403. the parents of the modern vernaculars,
Ahmadiyas, the, a recent sect of Islam 362.
in the Punjab, 438; their leader, Approaches by land and gateways of
Mulla Ghulam Ahmad, claims to be India, 5, 6, Io, I8.
at once Mahdi and Messiah, 438; the Aravalli mountains, their antiquity and
Koran contains all knowledge, 438; dis- degradation, I; divide Indian desert or
courages religious war, 438; denounces the Thar from South RajputAna, 33;
Christianity, Hinduism, the Shiah meteorology of, 123; botany of, i76,
doctrines, and English education, 438. 177.