134 THE INDIAN EMA£PIRE
remote date by the treasure accompanying the Piprahwa relics,
as well as by other similar finds of later date. The combined
testimony of ancient literature and archaeology proves that
jewellery of an elaborate kind was used freely in India from
very early times, but our knowledge of the actual forms of
ancient jewellery is chiefly derived from bas-reliefs and
the Ajant5 paintings. The discovery a few years ago in
Peshgwar District of some fine specimens of complete neck-
laces and pendants of complex design stands alone. These
ornaments, which have been described and illustrated by
Mr. Marshall, were associated with Kushan coins, and may be
assigned to the third century A.D. Seals and engraved gems
of varying degrees of merit have been found at many ancient
Indian sites, and Dr. Stein's researches have disclosed the
existence of similar objects in the ruins of the sand-buried
cities of Chinese Turkistan. In that region, as in India, the
best examples are Hellenistic in design.
VINCENT A. SMITH.
The literature of Indian Archaeology is of such enormous bulk that
a complete enumeration of the items would fill a volume. The official
publications of the Archaeological Survey alone comprise Cunningham's
Reports, twenty-three volumes; Vincent Smith's General Index to the
same, one volume; and the Imperial Series, about thirty volumes large
quarto, by various authors; besides other series and numerous minor and
miscellaneous works issued by Local Governments. Since the reorganization
of the Archaeological Survey by Lord Curzon, two Annual Reports, for
1902-3 and 1903-4, have appeared, edited by Mr. Marshall.
The voluminous Journals and Proceedings of the Asiatic and Oriental
Societies of England, India, and Europe, as well as the thirty-four volumes
quarto of the Indian Antiquary, are full of innumerable articles on the subject.
The following works, not included in the regular series of Reports, will
be found specially useful :-
CUNNINGHAM, Bilsa Toetes; Stlipa of Ehar-hut; AMahdbodhi. FER-
GcSSON, Tree and Srpesnt i"'orship, 2nd ed., IS73 ifor Canchi and Amar.-
vati). FERGUSSO. and BURGESS, Cave Temfples of India. BuRGEss,
NVotes on the Baudlha Pock Temp.es of Ajanta ,Bombay,f 8;9). GRIFFITHS,
The Paintings in the Btuddhist Cave Tenples of Aj7zantd (two vols., atlas
folio, London, 1896). GR[UNWEDEL, Buddhist Art in India, ed.
Burgess, transl. Gibson (London, 1go ; with a copious bibliography).
FoUCHER, L'Art Grgco-aouddhitue du Gandchdra (only vol. i yet published).
COLE, Reports on the Preservation of _ ionzal Monnuments, India, ten
parts (ancient and Muhammadan), and GRIGGS'S Preservation of Indi2n
Monuments, 0oo plates. VINcENT SMITH, The Jain Stdj~a and other
Antiquities of Mathura (Allahabad, 1go0). E. W. SMITH, Fathpur-Sikri
four vols. quarto; and Moghal Colour Decoration of Agra, one vol. quarto.
LE BON, Les Monuments de l'lnde (Paris, I893). MAINDRON, L'Art
Indien (Paris, 1898).