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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 303.

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THE early history of India is a history of the fusion of two General
alien races, the aboriginal (which was mostly Dravidian) and charactcr
of the
the Aryan. In the Vedic age they were strongly antagonistic. period.
In the second stage a partial fusion took place, and as this
fusion was most apparent in Buddhism, this is sometimes
called the Buddhist period. The third stage marks the com-
plete fusion of the two, when the aboriginal element, moulded
by the Aryan genius, becomes predominant. It is the age of
Neo-Hinduism, dating from the seventh century A.D. The
Guptas prepared the way, and the White Huns precipitated
the transition. When Harshavardhana died the subject
kings were left masterless, and Northern India lapsed into a
state of feebleness or anarchy which lasted for three centuries
(A.D. 650-950). By the middle of the tenth century a number
of stable states emerged, which were most flourishing when the
Muhammadan invasion overwhelmed them (A.D. I I 9 2).
The history of Northern India at this period presents a close Resem-
analogy to the contemporary history of Europe. In both blance to
the con-
countries barbarian invasions ushered in the dark ages; both temporary
were occupied with the same problem, the fusion of discordant history of
elements; and in both the foundations of a new society first Europe.
appear in the tenth century. Moreover, both had the same
enemies. The Saracens made themselves masters of Sicily
and Spain at the time that the Arabs took possession of Sind
and Multan (A.D. 712); and Mahmnd annexed the Western
Punjab to the kingdom of Ghazni (A.D. Io2I) not very many
years before the Seljuks established themselves at Iconium on
the frontiers of the Byzantine empire. But despite these resem-
blances the difference between the two countries was profound.
Europe was concerned with Feudalism and the Papacy, India
with Neo-Hinduism and the Rhjputs. Again, the comparative
freedom from external enemies, while normal in Europe, was

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