Ix] HINDU PERIOD OF SOUTHERN INrDIA 325
(near the Narbada), the Rastikas (predecessors of the
RashtrakFtas and Rattas of the Maratha country), the Petenikas
(of Paithan in the Deccan), and the Bhojas and Aparantas of
the Northern Konkan. This list probably sums up the nation-
alities then known, the rest of the Deccan being an almost
uninhabited waste, known as the Dandakarafiya, or desert
of Dandaka. The Pallavas of Kafichi or Conjeeveram, who
in later years became very powerful in the Deccan and on
the east coast, do not appear to have sprung into existence
so early. The Pallavas, if they are to be identified with the
'Pahlavas,' who were probably of Persian origin (Fleet, Bomob.
Gaz., vol. i, part ii, p. 3I7, &c.), are mentioned in an inscription
of about A. D. I50 at Nasik; and again in the inscription on the
Allahabad pillar of about the middle of the fourth century,
which states that they were defeated by the Guptas (ibid., p. 280).
The other Southern chiefs similarly mentioned as defeated
at that time are the kings of Kerala, Pishtapura, Kottur,
Vengi, and others. The Pallavas were firmly established at
the period of the latter inscription.
The powerful Andhra dynasty of the Satavahanas dates from The
about 180 B. c. They fixed their residence at Dhanyakataka, on Andhras.
the Krishna; and, being ardent Buddhists, they constructed there
the Amaravati sfl2pa, one of the most elaborate and precious
monuments of piety ever raised b5y man. Their kingdom
comprised all Middle India, and they ruled from sea to sea,
having on their south the great Tamil kingdoms. After a time
the Scythians from the north raided southwards, and there
was war. In an inscription at Nasik the Andhra Gotamiputra
is stated to have defeated the 'Sakas, Yavanas, and Pahlavas,'
the Saka chief being the Kshatrapa Nahapina. This was
about A. D. 125. Twenty-five years later Rudradaman, one of
the Saka Satraps, fought the Andhra king, and, according to
an inscription at Junagarh, twice conquered him; but success
appears really to have lain with the Hindu, for the Saka
conquests south of the Vindhyas were very limited in extent.
The Andhra period seems to have been one of considerable
prosperity. There was trade, both overland and by sea, with
Western Asia, Greece, Rome, and Egypt, as well as with
China and the East. Embassies are said to have been sent
from South India to Rome. Indian elephants were used for
Syrian warfare. Pliny mentions the vast quantity of specie
that found its way every year from Rome to India, and in this
he is confirmed by the author of the PenSrlus. Roman coins
have been found in profusion in the Peninsula, and especially