x] MUHAMMADAN INDIA 365
deal at the capital, and repaired the works of former kings.
On the whole, he was an excellent ruler, though not devoid of
bigotry, acting occasionally with great harshness and intolerance.
Up to I385 Firoz retained the government in his own hands;
but having now reached the age of seventy-six, he invested his
son with full power. In one year's time a sudden rising caused
the son to take to flight; it was then announced that Firoz
Shah had abdicated in favour of a grandson. Almost imme-
diately after this event Firoz died (Sept. 20, I388). Six
short and troubled reigns followed, and in 1398 Taimir's
invasion threw the country into confusion. The Tughlaq dynasty
ended ingloriously in I4I3.
FEroz Shah is famous for his many excellent rules of adminis- Adminis-
tration, and in the histories of his reign we find the first trative
connected account of the Muhammadan system of government
in India. It was, no doubt, the same from the earliest times,
and, subject to slight modification and improvement, remained
the same to the last. The king held all power in the last resort,
and was his own commander-in-chief; the outlying provinces
were governed by princes of the royal house or leading generals.
Under the king there was a chief minister, whose power varied
according to the energy and ability of the sovereign. Firoz
Shah was the first to remunerate officials by assigning to them
the land revenue from villages, a mode which Ala-ud-din, also
a notable administrator, had condemned, preferring to pay every-
body in cash from the treasury. In Firoz Shah's time the
modern jagir does not seem to have been known; the assign-
ments then made appear to have been mere orders to receive
a particular sum, and involved no right to manage the villages
or otherwise interfere. Firoz Shah seems also to have
favoured hereditary succession in office, a practice to which
Muhammadans are less inclined than Hindus, and accordingly
the rule was not long observed. The army consisted almost
entirely of cavalry. Men brought their own horses, and there
was a system of musters, which does not seem, however, to
have been very effective. The daily wants of the court were
supplied by a staff of its own, divided into thirty-six depart-
ments, for the elephants, the stables, the kitchen, water-cooling,
and so forth. An audit department existed, and when any
provincial governor came to court his accounts were examined.
There was a gold and silver coinage, of which the purity was
The chief source of revenue was a share of the produce
of land, supplemented by a poll-tax on non-Muhammadans.