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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 366.


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366 THE INDIA N EMPIRE [CHAP.
There were also a number of petty cesses, which Firoz Shah
thought unjust and attempted to abolish; probably without
much success, as we find Akbar and Aurangzeb, centuries after-
wards, issuing similar lists of prohibited demands. There was
constant interference with prices, a habit consonant with the
opinions of that age, in fact still approved by the general public
in India. There seems to have been an efficient postal system
for the carrying of government orders. We hear little about
courts and judges; probably disputes were then, as in later
ages, decided by local officers, such as qdzis, or by reference to
private arbitration.
TaimUr's In the days of Mahmud, the last of the Tughlaqs (i 398-I413),
invasion, the Delhi kingdom began to fall to pieces; Gujarat, Malwa,
I398. Khandesh, and Jaunpur became separate states. Ruin was
completed by the arrival in India of the Turkish conqueror,
Taimur the Lame (born April 9, I336; succeeded April 9, I370;
died February I8, I405), who, though himself a Muhammadan,
made no distinction between men of his own and of other
religions. In his campaign in India, crowded into seven
months, he dealt out death and destruction wherever he went.
Taimur crossed the Indus on September 20, 1398, and
when he reached the Jhelum river he detached a force against
Multan. After capturing a fort and a town on his way, he
arrived there in person; and MultAn was taken in October,
I398. He then retraced his steps to Bhatner, visiting on his
way the shrine of Farid-ud-din Shakkarganj, at Ajodhan (now
in the Montgomery district). On November 9, I398, Bhatner
succumbed. After attacking the Jgts, Taimufr passed the
Ghaggar stream and reached Kaithal; thence, he marched
down past Panipat to Delhi. On December I5 the forces of
Delhi were defeated in the field, ioo,ooo prisoners having pre-
viously been massacred to free his army from the trouble of
guarding them. Sultan _Mahmud fled, and Delhi was occu-
pied (December i8, I398); eight days afterwards it was given
up to pillage and a general massacre. After a halt of fifteen
days at Delhi, the campaign was resumed by crossing the
Jumna and proceeding northwards to Hardwar, which was
reached on January I3, I399. Part of the army went
a little distance across the Ganges to the east, while Taimfir
himself advanced some way into the hills. But he soon
turned his face westwards; on January 29, i399, he was
at Sirsgwa (in Saharanpur District), and two days afterwards
crossed the Jumna. For over a month there was constant
fighting in the outer hills, from the Jumna westwards as far



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