x] MUHAMMADAN INDIA 367
as Jammu. On March 4, I399, Jammu surrendered. But
no long halts were allowed, and on March I I Taimir
recrossed the Indus, made for Bannu, and India knew him
Mahmad regained little or none of his power, though he was Saiyids,
successful after a time in recovering the capital. When he died I4I4-5I'
in February, I413, a Lodi chief succeeded for fifteen months;
he in turn was expelled from Delhi (May 28, I414) by a Saiyid
governor, formerly of Multan, then Lahore, who had submitted
to Taimar and been received into his favour. From December,
1407, this man had begun to struggle with the other generals
in a general contest for supremacy. The victor, Saiyid Khizr
Khan, soon lost Lahore, but retained Delhi. Three descendants
followed until, in I45I, the last of them retired to Budaun, and
left Delhi to be claimed by the son of a horse-dealer, Bahlol
Khan, Lodi, a former general of Firoz Shah and governor of
Sihrind. who now proclaimed himself king.
At his death (July, 1489), Bahlol left a considerable The Lodis,
kingdom, extending from Delhi to Benares, including the I45I-1526.
formerly independent state of Jaunpur, which he had reannexed ahdlol
(November, 1488). He was a man of simple habits, pious, 145I-89.
brave, and generous. Sikandar, his son, had a prosperous reign Sikandar
of over twenty-eight years, during which he extended his king- Ldi,517
dom considerably. He ejected his brother from Jaunpur,
annexed Bihar, and even advanced into Bengal; reoccupied
Dholpur, Gwalior, and some other provinces farther to the
south and east. It is recorded that .in his time harvests were
plentiful, food cheap, and the populace contented. The king
was handsome in person, an encourager of learning, a good
man of business, liberal, honourable, and polite. The throne
passed (November 21, 1517) to his eldest son Ibrahim, who Ibrahim
was at once involved in a contest with his brother Jalal, to Lodi,
x x7- 6.
whom Jaunpur had been given. In the end Jalal was captured
and murdered. Ibrahim made some additions to his territories,
and also attacked the powerful Rana Sanga, Sesodia, of Chitor.
But he was soon involved in a dispute with Babar, king of
Kabul, who claimed all the lands in India ever held by the
Turks. After several incursions had been made by Babar into
the Punjab, at length he resolved in I526 upon a campaign
of conquest. On April 2I, I526, the contending armies
met near Panipat, about fifty-five miles to the north of
Delhi, where the Delhi force was utterly defeated and Ibrahim
himself slain. The conqueror advanced on Delhi and Agra,
and the kingdom of Delhi was replaced by what is known to us