370 TSE INDIAN EMPIRE [CHAP.
the period it was sometimes half independent, sometimes the
apanage of a Delhi prince.
Sind and Sind, on the other hand, was seldom under the authority of
MultIn, Delhi; most of the time it was held by local rulers, whose
origin and even names are involved in considerable obscurity.
SUmras, About Io5o, after the Arabs had been expelled, the Sumras, a
1050-1351. local Rajput clan, rose to power, and continued with more or
less independence to rule the country for 3o0 years (1050-135 i),
in the course of time becoming converts to Islam. Their
capital was at Muhammad Tur, towards the edge of the sandy
desert, or Thar.
Nasir- Nasir-ud-din, Qabajah, the Turki slave and lieutenant of
Qabajah,, occupied Multan and Uchh near the end
1206-28. of the twelfth century, subsequently extending his power over
Sind and the Suimras, who continued to be the local rulers
of seven small subordinate states. In 1206, upon his master's
death, Qabajah became independent, and remained in power
till his own death in 1228. Iyaltimish of Delhi was for a time
overlord of Sind; Muhammad son of Tughlaq also tried to
Sammahs, establish the authority of Delhi. About I351 the Sfimras
1351-I520. were replaced by another local clan, the Sammahs, whose chief
bore the title of Jam, and made his capital at Tatta. Sind was
invaded in I36I by Firoz Shah of Delhi and held by him for a
time; but the Sammah power survived this occupation, and was
Arghfns, not finally extinguished until the rise of the Arghuns (1520).
1520-54. Shah Beg, the first of them to occupy Sind, was descended in
the nineteenth generation from Chingiz Khan. His father, after
serving for a time as governor for Sultan Husain of Khurisan,
declared himself independent at Kandahar. Shah Beg, in
December, 15I4, descended into Sind, returned again in I5r8,
and finally took Tatta, the capital, in December, I520. He
died on July 18, 1522, and was succeeded by his son, Shah
Husain, who continued to govern until his death on February 14,
Tarkhans, 1544. Shah Husain was succeeded by one of his officers, Isa
1544-92. Khan, who had the hereditary title of Tarkhan, and belonged
to another branch of the same family. This Tarkhan house
continued in power until I592, when the last of them, Jani
Beg, ceded the country to the MIughal emperor, Akbar.
Langahs of As part of the dismemberment which followed upon the
Multan, invasion of Taimur, Multan, finding itself without a ruler, set
r45'55- up one of its own in the person of a Qureshi Shaikh (I443).
A few years afterwards this man was supplanted by the Sehra
chief of Siwi (or Sibi), who proclaimed himself under the title
of Qutb-ud-din Muhammad, Langah, and reigned for fifteen