x] AfIUHAMMADAN IIDIA 371
years (1454-69). His son Husain succeeded, and, after a long
and fairly prosperous reign, abdicated in favour of his son
Firoz. On the murder of Firoz, Husain resumed power, but
died soon afterwards (I502). Mahmud, son of Firoz, was
placed on the throne; and after twenty-two years, Husain, an
adopted son, followed (I524), only to be set aside a year
afterwards by Shah Husain, Arghfn, of Sind (I525).
Almost from the day of its conquest Bengal formed a sepa- Bengal and
rate kingdom, and its acknowledgement of the Delhi sovereignty Bih5r,
was rarely more than nominal. Muhammad, Khalj (son of
Bakhtyar), an officer of -Mu'izz-ud-dIn Ghori, who was the first
Muhammadan to invade Bengal (Ii98 or II99), had, before
the time of his death seven years afterwards, advanced as far
east as Nadia, and had even attempted to enter Tibet by way
of Cooch Behar. He established his rule at the old Hindu
capital of Lakhnauti (or Gaur) on the left bank of the Ganges
(now in Malda District). Two of his generals followed him;
then the government passed to another Khalji, Hisam-ud-din,
Iwaz. He was successful in increasing his territorial holding,
annexing the country as far as Kanauj in one direction
and Jagannath (Orissa) in the other. In I225 Iyaltimish of
Delhi invaded Bihar and took it, only to lose it again the next
year. Nasir-ud-din, that king's second son, who was now sent
to Bengal, took Lakhnautt, and overcame Iwaz, who was killed.
After holding Bengal for four years, Nasir-ud-din died there.
Iyaltimish then came to Lakhnauti himself, and took measures
to secure his authority. Three governors subject to Delhi
followed one another. The last of these Delhi nominees was
supplanted by a governor of Oudh, who had been sent to aid
him against the Hindus. The supplanter survived only two
years; his successor, another Turk, a slave, held the country for
seven years. At his death another man, who had been a slave.
of Iyaltimish, king of Delhi, was appointed; and he in I253,.
declaring himself independent, marched to conquer Oudh. He
soon beat an ignominious retreat, without waiting to encounter
the Delhi king. Next he invaded KAmrup (Assam), where he
was made prisoner and died of his wounds (I258).
The next ruler was a man sent from Delhi (1258); but
a rival governor, who held Karra on the Ganges (now in
Allahabad District), invaded Bengal, and the governor from
Delhi was slain in battle. The victor ruled for two years, and
was succeeded by his son, who died seventeen years afterwards.
His successor, Tughril (I277), was a slave whom Balban of
Delhi had sent from that capital. Having declared himself