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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 402.


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402 TIE INDIAN EMPIRE. [CHAP.
first to Lahore and then to Sind; but an advance by prince
Shuja from Bengal recalled Aurangzeb to the east before Dara
had been dealt with. At Khajwa (now in Fatehpur District)
the two armies' met; Shuja was defeated and fled. Jaswant
Singh, Rathor, who had passed first to one side and then to
the other, now threatened Agra, but retreated on Aurangzeb's
approach. Meanwhile Dara had found his way to Gujarat,
whence he tried to effect a junction with Jaswant Singh. The
Raja once more played the traitor; and Dara Shukoh, left
alone to face Aurangzeb, suffered a defeat near Ajmer, and
being refused entry into Ahmadabad fled onwards to Sind.
There his host betrayed him, he was brought to Delhi, and
four days afterwards murdered. Further trouble arose with
prince Shuja, who won over Aurangzeb's eldest son for a time.
But Shuja's fortunes declined, and soon he fled from Bengal
into Arakan, and was never heard of again. The remaining
brother, Murid, was murdered in prison.
In i66i Bikaner was entered and the Raja reduced to sub-
mission. At the other extremity of the realm Mir Jumla, an
officer who had come over to Aurangzeb from the Golconda
king's service, led an expedition into Assam with disastrous
results (I662-3). About this time the emperor had a danger-
ous illness, during which intrigue was rife. Happily he soon
recovered, and to restore his health he departed for Kashmir.
The Marathas of the Deccan, whose doings occupy from this
time so large a space in Indian history, now began to be con-
spicuous under the leadership of a remarkable man, Sivaji
(i627-80), son of Shahji. In his sixteenth year Sivaji began
his career as a robber chief; in I648 he revolted against his
sovereign, the king of Bijapur, and soon began to plunder the
adjoining Mughal territories. In I662 Shaista Khan, the
Mughal governor, took the field against him without much
success, but three years afterwards Raja Jai Singh (of Amber),
who had superseded Shaista Khan, induced Sivaji to submit
(I665) and proceed to Delhi. There he found himself practi-
cally a prisoner, but in i666 he managed to escape. Jai Singh
had been ordered to attack Bijapur, but failed in the attempt;
no greater success attended the emperor's son, Mu'azzam, and
Jaswant Singh, Rathor. During all this time Sivaji continued
his raids and incursions. Finally, about I67I, danger else-
where prevented any continuance of active measures in the
Deccan, and the Marathas gained considerable strength in
the interval.
The Afghan clans beyond the Indus had broken out into



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