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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 429.


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xi] VERNACULAR LITERATURE 429
'When the angry dogs assail,
Sturdy stick will never fail:
Stick will stretch each yelping hound
On the ground.
' If an enemy you see,
Stick will your protector be:
Sturdy stick will fall like lead
On your foeman's wicked head.
'Well doth poet Girdhar say
(Keep it carefully in mind),
"Other weapons leave behind,
Have a stick with you alway." '
The preceding works were written by Hindus, and were Urdil
based on Sanskrit rules of composition and prosody. Another literature.
group of works drew its inspiration from Persian, and, being
also poetical, followed the altogether different rules of Persian
prosody. This is the Urdi literature, which began in the Deccan
at the end of the sixteenth century, and received a definite
standard of form a hundred years later at the hands of Wall of
Aurangabad, commonly called' the Father of R&khta.' His
example was quickly followed at Delhi, where a school of
poets took its rise, of which the most brilliant members were
Saudi (died I780), the author of the famous satires, and Mir
Taqi (died i8io). Another school arose in Lucknow during
the troubles at Delhi in the middle of the eighteenth century.
Among the later Urdu authors belonging to the Delhi school,
though he lived at Agra, we may mention Wall Muhammad
(Nazir) (died 1832), whose works have great popularity among
both Muhammadans and Hindus, and are free from the ex-
treme Persianization that disfigures the writings of the authors
who belonged to Lucknow.
As has been explained in the chapter on Language, both
Urdu and Hindi prose took their rise under English influence
at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Bdgh o Bahar
of Mir Amman and the Khirad Afrtz of Hafizu'd-dIn are familiar
examples of the earlier of these works in UrdU, and the Prim
Sigar of Lalla Ll is a type of those in Hindi. Since then
prose in both these forms of HinddstAni has had a prosperous
course, and it is unnecessary to dwell upon the copious literature
which has poured from the press during the past century.
Muhammad Husain (Azad) and Pandit Ratan Nath (Sarshar)
are probably the most eminent among living writers of Urdu,
while in Hindi the late Hariichandra of Benares by universal
consent holds the first place. Hindi has no poetical literature,



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