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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 440.

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Sivaji, Sivji Bhonsla was born in I627, at Shivner, the hill-fort
1627-so. of Junnar, within the dominions of Ahmadnagar, and was
brought up at Poona, in his paternal jgir, while his father was
conquering new territory for Bijapur in the Carnatic. From
a boy he cherished the ambition of founding a Hindu king-
dom upon the ruins of the local 'Muhammadan dynasties
that were manifestly decaying. Gathering round him a party
of hill-men from the Ghats, known as Malwalis, he seized fort
after fort, and was soon able to measure his strength against
a Bijapur army, whose general, Afzal Khan, he stabbed at
a friendly conference (I659). A few years later he raided as
far north as Gujarat, and sacked the imperial city of Surat
(1664). This brought down upon him the wrath of Aurangzeb,
who sent an army to crush him. After more than one brilliant
feat of arms, Sivaji surrendered on terms, and went to Delhi
to pay homage to the Mughal emperor (i666). Being coldly
received and placed under restraint, he managed to escape
and return to the Deccan, where he quickly re-established his
power. In I674 he found himself strong enough to assume
the title of RaSj and the insignia of royalty, being enthroned
with great pomp at his hill-fort of Raigarh. So secure was he
that he now proceeded with a large force into the Carnatic, to
establish his claim to the jdgirs which his father had acquired
in Mysore, though Tanjore was resigned to a younger brother.
He died at Raigarh in i68o.
Sivaji not only founded a kingdom; he also created a nation,
as is shown by the course of events in the Deccan after his
death. Aurangzeb came in person to give the final blow
to the two moribund kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda,
and to suppress the Maratha revolt. The former object he
accomplished with ease; to the latter he devoted twenty years
in vain. Sambhlji, the eldest son and successor of Sivaji, was
unworthy of his father. He fell into the hands of Aurangzeb,
who put him cruelly to death, though he saved alive Shahu,
his infant son. The MarathAs now placed at their head
Raja Ram, the younger son of SivAji, whom they withdrew
to Gingee in the Carnatic, while they exhausted the unwieldy
Mughal army by a guerrilla warfare. On Aurangzeb's death
(I707) was set free and recognized as the heir of Sivaji,
with Satara as his capital, while the principality of Kolhapur
was guaranteed to a son of Raja Ram.
The Shahu's reign lasted for more than forty years (1707-48);
Pcshwas. but he was a roi.fainzCant, and resigned the government to his
minister. As has happened elsewhere in India, the minister

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