472 THE INDIA4V EA£PIRE [CHAP.
defeated. In 1748 an English fleet arrived under Admiral
Boscawen, and invested Pondicherry by sea, while a land
force co-operated under Major Stringer Lawrence, whose name
afterwards became associated with that of Clive. The French
brilliantly repulsed all attacks. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle,
in the same year, restored Madras to the English.
Second The first war with the French was merely an incident in
French the greater contest in Europe. The second war had its origin
i750_-4. in Indian politics, while England and France were at peace.
The native powers, having discovered the value of European
aid on the battle-field, were willing to pay for the loan of
disciplined troops by subsidies or territorial concessions. The
English were the first to plunge into this kind of entangle-
ment, and supported the cause of a claimant to the throne of
Tanjore. Their expedition met with only moderate success,
but formed a precedent to Dupleix for the more thorough-
going application of the principle of interference. The latter
was inspired with the ambition of founding a French empire
in India, under the shadow of the Muhammadan powers.
Disputed successions at Arcot and at Hyderabsd supplied
his opportunity. On both thrones Dupleix placed his nomi-
nees, and posed, after the capture of Gingee, the strongest
fort in the Carnatic, as the arbiter of the entire South. The
English at Madras, under the instinct of self-preservation,
were driven to support other candidates to the thrones of
both Arcot and IHyderabad, in opposition to the nominees
of Dupleix. The war which ensued between the French and
English in Southern India has been exhaustively described
Clive's by Orme. The one incident that stands out conspicuously
defence is the capture and subsequent defence of Arcot by Clive in
I75r' I75I. This heroic feat, even more than the subsequent battle
of Plassey, spread the fame of English valour through India.
Shortly afterwards, Clive returned to England in ill-health, but
the war continued for many years. On the whole, English
influence predominated in the Carnatic, and their candidate,
MIuhammad All, maintained his position at Arcot. But the
French were supreme in the Deccan.
The ablest of Dupleix's subordinates, the Marquis de
Bussy, had been sent in command of the force which placed
the French candidate on the throne of Hyderabad. He
initiated the policy of subsidiary alliances, which Lord
Wellesley afterwards made his own. He induced the Nizam
to take into his pay the army which had established his
power; and the government of the maritime tract called 'the