xIvj HISTORY OF BRITISH RULE 515
The Act for the Better Government of India (i858), which India
finally transferred the entire administration from the Company transferred
- to the
to the Crown, was not passed without an eloquent protest from Crown,
the Directors, nor without acrimonious party discussion in 1858.
Parliament. It enacts that India shall be governed by, and
in the name of, the Sovereign through one of the principal
Secretaries of State, assisted by a Council of fifteen members.
At the same time the Governor-General received the new title ' The
of Viceroy. The European troops of the Company, numbering Viceroy.'
about 24,000 officers and men, were amalgamated with the
Royal service, and the Indian Navy was abolished. By the
Indian Councils Act (I86I), the Governor-General's Council,
and also the Councils at Madras and Bombay, were aug-
mented by the addition of non-official members, either natives
or Europeans, for legislative purposes only. By another Act,
also passed in IS6r, High Courts of Judicature were constituted
out of the old Supreme Courts at the Presidency towns and
the AdAlats or appellate courts of the Company.
It fell to the lot of Lord Canning both to suppress the India
Mutiny and to introduce the peaceful revolution which under the
followed. It suffices to say that he preserved his equanimity
unruffled in the darkest hours of peril, and that the strict
impartiality of his conduct incurred alternate praise and blame
from partisans of both sides. The epithet then scornfully
levelled at him of 'Clemency' Canning is now remembered
only to his honour. On November I, I858, at a grand darbdr Queen's
held at Allahabad, he published the Royal Proclamation, which Procla-
announced that the Queen had assumed the government Nov. i,
of India. This document, which is, in the truest and noblest I858.
sense, the Magna Charta of the Indian people, proclaimed in
eloquent words a policy of justice and religious toleration, and
granted an amnesty to all except those who had directly taken
part in the murder of British subjects. Peace was proclaimed
throughout India on July 8, I859. In the following cold
season Lord Canning made a viceregal progress through the
Northern Provinces, to receive the homage of loyal princes
and chiefs, and to assure them that the policy of 'escheat or
lapse' was at an end, and that adopted heirs would hence-
forward be recognized by the British Government.
The suppression of the Mutiny increased the debt of India Cost of the
by about 40 crores of rupees, and the military changes which Mutiny.
ensued augmented the annual expenditure by about io crores.
To grapple with this deficit, a distinguished political economist
and parliamentary financier, Mr. James Wilson, was sent out