Angrily (d. 1730o), famous corsair admiral Arghmins, descended from Chingiz KhIn,
of the Mar.thd fleet, harassed Bombay, rulers of Kandahlr and Sind (1520-54),
441, 462. 3o0.
Aphoristic poetry, abundant in all San- Arinugon, English factory at (1628), 457.
slerit literature, 252, 253. Army, reorganization of, by Clive, 480o;
Apollodotus, Graeco-Bactrian king, 287. under one Commander-in-Chief in India
Arab invasions and conquests, early and (i895), 525 ; reforms of, by Lolrd
of spent force, of India, 143, 351; Klitchener, 528, 530; its relations with
translations of Sanskrit medical authors the civil authority, 530o.
in the eighth century, 266. Arts (ancient), minor, enamelled tiles, 128,
Arch, in Muhammadan architecture, 182. 129; glass mosaics, 29; few speci-
Archaeology, of the Historical period, mens left of pottery, 132, 133; jewelled
chap. iii, pp. I01-134; the transition jade and rock crystal, 133; jewellery,
from prehistoric times, lot, 102; the _ gems, and scals, 134.
greatgapinourknowled'geo. the period Aryabhl.tl (b. A.rD. 476), the founder of
between the death of Buddha and the Indian astronomy, 265; maintained the
reign of Asoka, 103; the early or rotation of the earth on its axis and
Maurya period (250 B.c.-So A.D.) of explained eclipses of sun and moon,
Indian art, 104-II2; its remains 265, 266.
mainly Buddhist, 104, l05; the influ- Aryans. See under Hinduism and Vedic
ence of Alexandrian and Hlcllenistic Literatmue.
models, io;, lo6; the second or Kushan Aryas or 'kinsmen,' the name given by
period (A.D. 50-350,' 112-122; the themselves to the conquering invaders,
influence of Rome, 112, 113 ; its sculp- 221.
ture, 113-11 7 ; the paintings of Ajant, Asokna the G:eat, king of hMagadha or
117-121; the Gupta period (320-480), ehlar (272-231 v.C.), 2S3-2S5; his
122-123; mediaeval, Muhammadan, eight years' enjoyment of the chase and
and Mughal sculpture, painting, and the table, 283; his murderous conquest
decoration, 123-132; the minor arts, (26I) of Kalinga, 283; his conversion
132-134, the rarity of specimens, 132, by pity and remorse for bloodshed to
133 ; bibliography, 131. the teaching and practice of Buddhism,
Architecture, Indian, 1;5-205 ; as a fine 283; became a -lay and finally an or-
art distinct from building and engineer- dained member, 24 (n.), 42, 283 ; his
ing, 156; the difficulties of its history ardent ant successful 1 ropaganda by
and classification, 155; wooden archi- royal edicts, doctrinal inscriptions,
tecture, the earliest and basis of all missions, iand the foundation of mon-
other, 10o3, I6-I58, its use for early asteries, 44, 284, 2S8; his care for the
Buddhist buildings, I57, its conversion bodies as well as the souls of his sub-
into stone architecture, 157-161, con- jects and proselytes by mild administra-
temporary cave-temples, i61-165; the tion, good roads, hospitals, &c., 285;
Gandhara school of architecture in con- transformed a local sect into a world-
nexion with the newer (Mahl.ayna) religion, 285; his Lbuddhism the present
Buddhism, 165-i67; Gupta architec- religion of Ceylon, Burma, and Siam,
ture, 167, I8S ; Kashmir architecture 2S ; his active toleration and concurrent
from the eighth century to the Man- e-ndowentof other religions, 158, 285;
hammadan conquest, 16S-i7o: of Jain the disintegration of the empire after
temples in KIanara, 17o; Dravidian his death, 285.
architecture, I70-174; the Ch.lukyan Asolka, some references to: his date mis-
style or area, 174-I77; Indo-Aryan, placed by 9oo years in epigraphy and
177-18I; Muhammadan, 181-198 ; its the Puranas, I6, 22, 23, 24; his true
general style, 181-184; its special date determined (I793) by Sir WTm.
characteristics in Jaunpur (Sharki), Jones, 24; his pillars and edicts, 42,
I84, 185, MMlwa, 185-188, Bengal, 43, 53, I6, o109, 158; his strj.zs, III,
188-193, Gulbarga and Bidar, 193- 157, i58, 1z9; no known coins of,
195, Gujar.at, , , 196, Bijlpur, 197, 138; his columns, 35, 36; his rock
198; the Mughal Saiacenic style, g98- edicts, 41, 42, 53; the historical value
200oo; later and modem architecture, of his inscriptions, 53. 54; his abdica-
200, 20oi ; bibliography, 201-205. tion and religious retirement, 24 (n.),
Archives and chronicles, dynastic, in- 42, 54 ; his visit and honour to Bud-
stances of their ancient compilation dha's birthplace before his conversion,
and survival, 12-14. 54, 55 ; the history of Indian art begins
Arcot, capture and defence of (I751), by w-ith, Io3; pulled down and rebuilt the
Clive, 472. first stlltas over Buddha's remains, I59.