THE INDIAN EMPIRE
I Agricultural Population, Climate, and Soils
THE predominating feature of agriculture in India is that Proportion
it gives occupation, directly and indirectly, to an immense of the
majority of the population of the country. The census returns engaged in
show that in British Provinces the proportion of the total agriculture.
population directly engaged in agriculture was 62 per cent.
in I891 and 68 per cent. in i9go, the corresponding figures
for Native States in those years being 57 and 6o per cent.
In India as a whole about 175,000,000 people were directly
dependent upon agriculture proper and cattle-rearing in I891,
and I96,000,000 in I9go, the total population of the country
in those years being 287,o000o,ooo and 294,000,000 respectively.
The following table gives detailed statistics for I9go, as recorded
in the occupation returns of the Census:-
Number of Persons subsisting British Native Total.
from India. States.
Provision and care of animals.
Stock-breeding and dealing 2,745,486 I,I59,183 3,904,669
Training and care of animals . 57,058 14,904 71,962
TOTAL . 2,802,544 1,174,087 3,976,631
Landholders and tenants . . 122,727,972 29,956,276 152,684,248
Agricultural labourers . 30,31o,o64 5,098,774 35,408,838
Growers of special products . 1,783,660 844,960 2,628,620
Agricultura training and 856,269 113,756 970,025
TOTAL . . 55,677,965 36.o3,766 191,691,731
GRAND TOTAL 158,480,509 37,187,853 195,668,362
VOL. III. B