ARTS AND MANUFACTURES
Progress of THOUGH India is pre-eminently an agricultural country, the
India as a advance of other industries may be inferred from the circum-
turing stance that for many years past the returns of foreign trade
country. have shown a steady expansion in the exports of manufactured
goods and in the imports of raw materials. In the fifteen years
ending with March, I904, the increase amounted to IoT per cent.
under exports, and 45 per cent. under imports, while the ex-
ports of Indian raw produce increased by only 28 per cent.,
and the imports of foreign manufactures by only I7 per cent.
India is thus working up more and more of her own raw
materials, and is finding an expanding foreign market for her
manufactures. At the same time she requires a larger amount
of imported raw products to feed her mills, factories, and work-
Hand and The arts and manufactures of India are more easily separable
Seutries into sections, corresponding with hand-labour and steam-power,
than are those of most countries; for handicrafts, in spite of the
marvellous mechanical developments of the past century, are
still very important to the Indian people. The carpenter, the
potter, the blacksmith, the stonemason, the weaver, the dyer,
the tailor, the shoemaker, the drug-seller, and the sweetmeat-
maker are recognized members of most village communities.
The higher crafts-those of artistic workers in wood, clay,
stone, metals, and textiles-are carried on in special localities
and in direct relationship to physical and administrative con-
ditions. When, for instance, hand-labour industries are prac-
tised on a large scale they tend to become centralized in the
Steam-power manufactures are not in any way indigenous
industries, but have been originated, and are controlled, by the
supply of raw material and fuel, by the facilities of transport,
and by the degree of association with European enterprise.