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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 3, p. 336.


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336 TIE INDIAN EiMPIRE [CH.v.
into fertile fields of wheat and rice. The works in Sind consist
almost entirely of inundation canals from the Indus. The
Desert, Unar Wah, and Begari Canals all take off from the right
bank, above Sukkur, and have been practically constructed by
the British Government. The Eastern Nara is a branch from
the Indus, which takes off from the left bank, immediately above
Sukkur, and discharges into the Rann of Cutch. This branch
has been deepened at the head and brought under control, so
that it provides a perennial supply to the canals which take off
from it. Among these is the recently constructed Jgmrao
Canal, which takes off from the NSra at the lower boundary of
the Khairpur State and commands a large area of waste land.
Colonists are being introduced on the system which has been
so successfully followed in the Punjab, and the prospects are
promising. The canal was opened in November, i899, and
irrigated more than 269,o00oo acres in 1902-3. In addition to
these 'Major works, Sind contains several large inundation
canals, which are Minor works with capital accounts. Among
these the largest and most important is the Fuleli Canal in
Hyderab&d District, which is navigable and generally in flow all
the year round, and is capable of irrigating over 4oo,ooo acres.
There are also, as in the Punjab, a number of smaller canals,
which are maintained by Government as 'Minor works, for
which no capital accounts are kept, and which together irrigate
about goo,ooo acres.
In addition to the works mentioned, four small productive
works are under construction on the left side of the Indus, and
many extensions of existing canals have been proposed. It is
estimated that when all these have been completed the total
area annually irrigated, which may be taken as averaging about
2,7oo,ooo acres, will be increased by about 20 per cent. The
irrigated area fluctuates greatly according to the state of the
river, the difference between a very favourable and an unfavour-
able season being as much as Soo.ooo acres. In spite of these
fluctuations the canals never wholly fail, and are remarkably
cheap and profitable works. It has been suggested that the
area under irrigation might be greatly extended, and the
efficiency of many of the existing canals increased, by con-
structing a weir across the Indus at Sukkur, and that this will be
rendered necessary sooner or later by the continued abstraction
of the water in the Upper Indus and its tributaries by the new
Punjab canals. The cost and engineering difficulties of such
a work would be very great, and no opinion can be pronounced
on its feasibility until it has been more fully considered; but



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