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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 3, p. 507.


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INDEX 507
Kistna, 338 ; his Tungabhadra project,
340 356.
Cotton, manufactured, trade in ; mainly
a trade of the home market, 282 ;
large imports of piece-goods, 203, 278 ;
effects of Indian mills, 279 .; exports,
mainly of twist and yarn, to China,
282 ; variations from 1861 to 1903
in wholesale prices of imports, 462,
Cotton, raw, its cultivation, 42-46 ; va-
rieties, late and early ripening, 43,
44 ; deterioration of Indian, and at-
tempts to improve, 44, 1 96 ; exotics,
44, 45 ; areas of production, 45 ; soils,
&c,, 45 ; mode of cultivation, 46 ; out-
turn, 46 ; exports, 48, 286 ;its competi-
tion with American, 286 ; recent market
in Japan, 286.
Cotton industries, 195-203 ; early history
in India, England, and U. S. A., 195,
196 ; resuscitation of in India by intro-
duction of stream-power, 1 96 ; capital
and labour engaged in, 196 ; ginning,
spinning, and weaving mills, I 97 ; hand-
loom weaving, 197, 198 ; degradation
of quality of staple, 196 ; longcloths or
damasks, 198-201 ; chief vernacular
terms, 198, 199 ; cloths, of N. India,
of United Provinces, I99, of Central
Provinces and Berar, 199, 200, of Ben-
gal, of Bombay Presidency, 200, of
Madras Presidency, of Mysore and
Burma, 200, 201 ; muslins, plain and
figured, 201, 202 ; of Dacca, 201, jam-
danis of Bengal, 201, 202, of United
Provinces, of Rajputana and Central
India, of Madras, 202 ; twist and yarn,
production of and improvement of,
202, 203, exports of, 203, 282; woven
piece-goods, &c., production of, white,
grey, and coloured, 203 ; cotton car-
pets and rugs, 2 I 7.
Credit, agricultural, 90-92 ; the land
worked on borrowed capitat, 90 ; evil
results of excessive indebtedness of pea
sant, 16, 90 ; wide credit due to security
of British rule, 90, 91 ; high rates of
interest due to camp tition for loans,
90 ; frequent sales or foreclosures, 90,
91 ; curtailment by Government of
peasants' right to raise money on land,
91, and institution of loans at moderate
rates, 9 1 ; Act to encourage co-opera-
tive credit on the Raffeisen plan, 91.
Crops, mixed, intermittent, in rotation,
23, 24, 25 ; principal crops, 27-76,
98-100 ; proportion of cropped land,
of cultivable, waste, and forests, 3.
See also Cultivation, Soils.
Cultivation or tilth of the soil, good and
bad, as elsewhere, 6 ; best in the Pen-
insula, 7 ; checked by want of capital, 7;
its implements, few, simple, indigenous,
11-15; ploughs, 1 2 ; scarifiers and seed-
drills for Deccan trap, I3; bullock-hoes,
harrows, levellers, and clod-crushers,
carts, 14 ; hand-tools : crowbars, koda-
lis or mamutis (used for spade work),
picks, sickles, winnowing sieves, and
scoops (sup), 14, I5 ; methods of filth,
1 5, I 6 ; its various methods and skill,
6, 7 ; defective selection of seeds, 16 ;
irrigation, 16-20, its paramount ne-
cessity, 16, 92, its applicability to
defferent soils, 17-19 ; high farming
in Peninsula under well-irrigation, 19,
20 ; manures, 20-23 ; fallowing, 23 ;
intermittent cultivation in virgin and
reclaimed soils, 24, its method in West-
ern Ghats, 24 ; shifting cultivation by
aboriginal hill tribes, 24, its waste and
dangers of fire, 25, 105 , 1 I4, its con-
trol, 25, 1 I 4 ; rotation of crops 25 ;
mixed crops as a substitute and in-
surance, 25 ; advantages of sowing
pulses with cereals, especially arhar,
2 5 . See also Labour, Irrigation, Soils.
Customs, land, 263, 264; their im-
position, and their irregularity, 264 ;
on salt and sugar, 264 ; their reduc-
tion, unification and practical abandon-
ment in the British Provinces, 264;
still maintained by some of the Native
States, 264; municipal octrois, 264.
See also Vol. IV, ch. ix.
Customs, sea, on imports and exports,
their imposition and reduction, 263.
See also Vol. IV, chap. viii.
Cutch, catechu, and gambier, resinous ex-
tracts, 17 I ; their preparation and use,
1 7 2 ; amounsts produced, I 7 2.
D.
Dairying and dairy farms, 83, 84; en-
couragement of, by Government, 83;
cantonment grass farms, 83 ; increase
in butter-making, 83, 84 ; exports and
imports of butter, ghi, and condensed
milk, 84.
Dalhousie, Lord, inaugurated a per-
manent forest policy, 107; his minute
in 1853 on railways, 366.
Damascened and encrusted wares, 240;
the chief centres of the industry, 2 40.
Diamonds, modern output small, 160 ;
areas of former production, I 60 ; indus-
try still lingers in area of V indhyan
system, I 6 I .
Drugs, indigenous, 2 2 2 ; quinine, its cheap
sale at every pot office, 2 2 2, 2 23 ,
imports and exports, 223,
Dyeing, decline of the old industry, 1 8 1 ;
bad influence of mineral dyes upon
Indian taste and trade, 181, I82 ; fall
in exports, mainly of indigo, rise in
imports, 182 ; popular use of dyes and
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