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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 4, p. 44.

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a course of training for the younger men; the Provincial
services, styled the Bengal Civil Service, the Madras Civil
Service, and so on, enjoy the remainder of the important
executive, judicial, and administrative appointments; and the
Subordinate services comprise the holders of minor posts. From
the time of the introduction of this system the terms ' Coven-
anted' and 'Uncovenanted' services were abolished. Admission
to the Provincial services is regulated by rules framed by the
Local Governments and approved by the Government of India.
Sometimes it is by nomination, sometimes by examination, and
sometimes by promotion from the Subordinate service. Many
of the Provincial and Subordinate service officers are graduates
of Indian Universities. The members of the Provincial service
are, like the former Statutory Civilians, eligible for offices
heretofore reserved for the Covenanted service. Lists of the
posts open to them were published in 1892-3: they included
ninety-three superior appointments (to which some additions
have since been made), such as Collectorships, Deputy Com-
missionerships, and superior Judgeships in the Provinces to
which they belonged. The natives of India have, on the whole,
shown greater ability in the discharge of judicial than of ad-
ministrative functions, and their special talents have been
recognized by appointment to some of the highest judicial
Special- Another striking change which has taken place in the Civil
ized de- Service of India is the creation of numerous specialized depart-
partmentsments and appointments, which have already been referred to
in connexion with the various Departments of the Govern-
ment of India. When public education and the development
of the country were in their infancy, the control of almost all
branches of the administration was vested in members of the
Covenanted service. After the consolidation of the British
power had been effected, and the Government had set itself to
the task of improving the administration, educating the people,
and constructing roads, railways, and irrigation works, a demand
arose for officers of special training and experience of all
kinds. Various departments were from time to time created,
which now share with the general civil service the multifarious
duties which are performed by the Government in India.
Among the larger of these services are the Public Works
Department, the Survey of India, and the Postal, Telegraph,
Education, Police, Salt, Sanitary, Jails, and Civil Medical
departments. The same principles regarding the employment
of natives which govern the general civil service have been

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