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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 4, p. 48.


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48


TIE IVDIAN EMPIRE


[CHAP.


branch of the service. In Bengal one of these is at the head
of the great department of land revenue, and the other at the
head of the departments of excise, opium, income-tax, &c.; and
they meet together as a board only for the hearing of certain
classes of appeals. The United Provinces Board acts more as
a collective body, all important questions being considered by
the whole Board. Immediately subordinate to the Board in
both Provinces are the Director of Land Records and Agricul-
ture, and the Commissioner of Excise; and, in Bengal, the
Collector of Customs and the Opium Agents 1. In Madras the
Board of Revenue has four members, two of whom are Land
Revenue Commissioners, one is Settlement Commissioner, and
the fourth is Commissioner for Salt, Excise, Income-tax, and
Customs. There is no Board of Revenue in Bombay; and the
Director of Land Records and Agriculture, and the Commis-
sioner of Customs, Salt, Opium, and Excise, are there imme-
diately subordinate to the Local Government. Law officers
are employed by each Local Government to advise it on legal
questions and to conduct cases in which it is interested.
Territorial The system of administration in both regulation and non-
sub-
Sdvisions- regulation Provinces is based on the repeated subdivision of
Districts. territory, each administrative area being in the responsible
charge of an officer who is subordinate to the officer next in
rank above him. The most important of these administrative
units is the 'District'; and the most accurate impression of the
system may be gained by regarding a Province as consisting of
a collection of Districts, which are usually split up into sub-
divisions and these again into smaller circles.
British India contains more than 250 Districts. The average
area of a District is 4,430 square miles, and the average popula-
tion 93i,000. The average District is thus about three-fourths
of the size of Yorkshire, and its inhabitants number considerably
more than half the population of that county. The actual
Districts vary greatly in size and density of population. For
instance, the Upper Chindwin District of Burma has an area
of I9,000 square miles and a population of 153,000; Mymen-
singh, in Bengal, has an area of over 6,ooo square miles and a
population of nearly 4,000,000; and Vizagapatam, in Madras,
has an area of more than I7,000 square miles and a population
Provinces, for a period of four years, mainly for the purpose of dealing
with Settlement work.
1 The production of opium in Bengal and the United Provinces is under
the Bengal Board of Revenue, which works in the latter Province through
an agent at Ghazipur.



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