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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 4, p. 242.

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Division of THE poppy is grown in India for the manufacture of opium
receipts for export to China and other countries, and for home con-
opium sumption. Revenue derived from export opium is credited in the
under ,public accounts under the heading 'opium,' and that from home
' Opium'
and consumption under the heading 'excise.' The export revenue
'Excise' is much the more important: in 1904-5 it amounted to more
revenue. than 6 crores net, as compared with one crore from excise opium.
Principal The principal sources of opium supply are, firstly, Bihar and
sources of the Districts of the United Provinces lying along and in the north
of the Gangetic valley; and, secondly, a number of Native
States in the Central India and Rajputana Agencies, principally
Indore, Gwalior, Bhopal, and Mewar. There is also some pro-
duction in Baroda. The produce of the first region is known
as Bengal, and of the second region as Malwa, opium.
Production The right to produce Bengal opium was farmed by the
of Bengal Muhammadan rulers who preceded us, and this method was
adopted by Warren Hastings, on behalf of the East India
Company, in i7731. It was, however, found to give rise to
deterioration of the product and to oppression of the cultivators
by the contractors; and accordingly in i797 the Bengal
Government assumed the direct monopoly of manufacture,
a system which has continued to the present time. Under this
system, which at its inception corresponded with that then in
force in regard to salt, the growth of the poppy and the manu-
facture of the opium are under the superintendence of a special
department. The department is divided into two agencies, one
for Bihar with head-quarters at Patna, and one for the United
Provinces with head-quarters at Ghazipur, near Benares; but
both agents are under the control of the Bengal Board of
Valuable historical notes by Sir J. B. Lyall and Mr. R. M. Dane on the
production of opium in India, and on the opium trade with China, will be found
in vol. vii, pt, ii, of the Report of the A'oyal Opilum Ca/omiJ vion of 1893.

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