Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 4, p. 409.
ED UCA TIOXV
respect and do menial service for their maulvi, and custom
permitted him to make free use of the cane or to punish delin-
quents in any other way his ingenuity might devise.
In England, during the early days of the Company's rule, the Early
state still left the care of education to private enterprise and history of
'the pious founder.' The principles which prevailed at home tinder
naturally influenced the conduct of the administration in British
India, and the Court of Directors did little to supplement the rule.
indigenous systems of education existing in their territories.
Their efforts were confined to the establishment of colleges for
Oriental learning, such as the Calcutta Madrasa for Muhamma-
dans founded by Warren Hastings in 1782, and the Benares
College for Hindus established in i79i. About this time Mr.
Wilberforce and other benevolent persons in England took up
the cause of the education of the natives of India, and, after an
unsuccessful attempt in 1793 to introduce a measure for the
encouragement of missionaries and schoolmasters, succeeded in
inserting a clause in the Charter Act of 'IS3 that one lakh of
rupees in each year should be 'set apart and applied to the revival
and improvement of literature and the encouragement of the
learned natives of India, and for the introduction and promotion
of a knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the
British territories in India.' The grant was devoted mainly to
the upkeep of the Oriental colleges, the payments of stipends
to students, and the publication of works of Oriental literature.
But the cause of general education was not without its advo-
cates. In 1815 Lord Hastings declared his anxiety to see
some system of public instruction established, and the private
endeavours of native and English gentlemen and of missionary
bodies gave a fresh impetus to educational progress. Potent
causes were at work which tended to direct the current of edu-
cation into new channels. 'A knowledge of English became a
means of livelihood to natives at the centres of government, and
a demand arose for English instruction in the Presidency towns.
As the old exotic court language, Persian, fell into disuse, and
especially when it ceased to be the language of official life, the
demand for education in the vernaculars which had superseded
the foreign tongue made itself more widely felt. Meanwhile a
new influence in favour of popular education was being brought
to bear upon the Indian Government by missionary and
philanthropic bodies both in this country and in Europe'.'
At a very early date Christian missionaries assumed an Early
honourable and important position in the history of Indian work.
l Report of the Indian Education Commis-ion, 1883.