Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 4, p. 479.
AIMEDICAL ADMINIJASTRA TION 4
Presidency town, and in Karachi and other places in Sind.
Each Province has a large establishment of public vaccinators,
with an inspecting staff under the Deputy Sanitary Com-
missioners. In Bengal private vaccinators are licensed, and
are permitted to receive fees. In municipalities the vaccinators
are maintained by the municipal authorities, and in rural areas
by the Government or the District boards. More than 2 per
cent. of the work is done by the ordinary dispensary staff.
There has been a great increase in the annual rate of vaccina-
tion and in the proportion of protected persons (see Table II
at the end of this chapter). During IS64-5 only 556 persons
were vaccinated in Bengal, the United Provinces, and the
Punjab; in I902-3 more than five millions were successfully
vaccinated in the same Provinces. In the whole of British
India the proportion of persons who underwent vaccination to
the total population was 27 per r,ooo in I88o-I, and 35 in
1902-3, while the true normal birth-rate may be taken as
approaching 50 per thousand. The proportion of vaccinations
to births varies greatly in different Provinces, being best in the
Punjab and worst in Bengal. In parts of the latter Province
the people are still prejudiced and hide their children from the
vaccinators. A great improvement has been made in recent
years by substituting calf-lymph vaccination for the arm-to-arm
method. This process was systematically introduced in I890.
Dep6ts for the manufacture and storage of calf lymph have
been established, and the use of human lymph is being more
and more superseded.
See the official and other publications referred to under ' General Popu-
lation' in the bibliography to the chapter on Public Health (Vol. I, chap. x).
Also, for Hindu times, Civilisation in .-tnc/ci Indta, by R. C. DI)tt
(Calcutta, 1899), book v, chap. xi; and .4 Shot,' Iis/toy of Aryan Medical
Science, by the Thakur Sahib of Gondal (1896).