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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 25.

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Adoni possesses a strong fort on the top of a precipitous cluster of
rocky hills; and, being the capital of an important frontier tract in the
fertile dodb of the Kistna and Tungabhadra, it played a conspicuous
part in the intestine wars of the Deccan. In the fourteenth century it
was perhaps the finest stronghold of the Vijayanagar kings, and Firishta
says that they regarded it as impregnable, and had all contributed to
make it an asylum for their families. Though several times threatened,
it was never taken until after their final downfall at the battle of Talikota
in I565. In i568 the Sultan of Bijapur at length captured it; and
thereafter it remained a Muhammadan possession until it passed, with
the rest of the Ceded Districts, to the British in 800o. One of the
earliest of the Bijapur governors was Malik Rahman Khan (1604-3I),
whose tomb stands in a picturesque position on the cluster of rocks on
which the fort is built, and is still maintained by a grant from Govern-
ment. The best known of them is Sidi Masud Khan (I662-87), who
built the beautiful Jama Masjid, employing materials from several
neighbouring Hindu temples which he had destroyed. This cost 2 lakhs
and is one of the finest mosques in the Presidency. In i686, when
Aurangzeb marched south to annex the Bijapur dominions, he sent a
general to take Adoni. Failing in other methods, and knowing Masud
Khan's love for the mosque he had built, he trained his guns, says
tradition, upon the building and threatened to fire upon it unless the
fort was surrendered. Masad Khan, who held the mosque dearer than
his life, at once capitulated. In 1756 the Nizam granted Adoni as a
idgir to his brother Basalat Jang, who made it his capital. Haidar All
of Mysore twice attacked the fortress without success while it belonged
to Basalat Jang; and, though in 1778 he defeated the Marathas under
its walls and in the following year laid waste the country round, it did
not surrender. Basalat Jang died in 1782, and lies buried in an
imposing tomb to the west of the town, which is still carefully kept up.
In 1786 Tipu, Haidar's son and successor, captured the place after a
siege of one month, demolished the fortifications, and removed the
stores and guns to Gooty. It formed part of the possessions of Tipu
which were allotted to the Nizam at the partition of I792, and in i8oo
the Nizam ceded it to the British. The remains of this famous fort
stand on five hills, which are grouped in an irregular circle and enclose
a considerable area. The two highest of the five are called the
Barakhilla and the Talibanda, and on the top of the former are the old
magazines and a curious stone cannon. The oldest antiquities in the
place are some Jain figures cut on the rocks, which are now cared for by
the Jains. The town below the fortress consists of nine pettahs or
suburbs, and most of the streets are very narrow and crooked, though
improvements have been made of late.
Adoni is the chief centre of the cotton trade of the District and the

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