26 ADONI TO WN
commercial mart for all the north. It contains five factories for pressing
and cleaning cotton, all worked by steam, which employ on an average
500 hands in the season. The chief industries are the weaving of
cotton and silk. The cotton carpets made here have a considerable
reputation for both colour and durability, and are sold all over the
Presidency as well as in other parts of India. Adoni was made a
municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts and expenditure during
the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 44,900 and Rs. 53,800
respectively. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 56,500 and Rs. 50,ooo; the
former consist chiefly of the proceeds of the taxes on houses and land,
a contribution from Government, and the water rate. The town pos-
sesses water-works, which were completed in 1895 at a total cost
of Rs. 1,57,000. The annual cost of their maintenance amounts to
Rs. 5,200. The water is obtained from a large artificial reservoir at the
foot of the rocky hills on which the fort stands. This has been enlarged
and improved, and fitted with filter-beds and settling-tanks. Its
capacity is 45 million cubic feet, but the supply is very precarious, and
it has already once been necessary to pump from wells sunk in its bed.
The Ramanjala spring, at the foot of the hills near the reservoir,
supplements the supply for four months in the year. This spring
never dries up.
Adrampet.-Town in Tanjore District, Madras. See ADIRAMPATNAM.
Aeng.-Township of Kyaukpyu District, Lower Burma. See AN.
Afghanistan.-The geographical designation popularly applied to
the mountainous region between North-Western India and Eastern
Persia, of which the Afghans are the predominant and most numerous
inhabitants. This extensive application of the term is scarcely older
than the short-lived empire founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in the
middle of the eighteenth century, when the Punjab and Kashmir were
also included in the Afghan sovereignty. The Afghans themselves do
not use the term: an Afghan will speak of his home as being at Kabul,
Herat, or elsewhere, but never as being in Afghanistan. For the
purposes of this article, the term may be held to apply to the dominions
under the actual sovereignty of the Amir. These dominions, which
now form an independent State within the British sphere of influence,
consist of a great quadrilateral between 29° 23' and 38° ' N. and
60° 45' and 72° o' E., with a long narrow strip (Wakhan) extending to
74° 55' E.; and its total area has been estimated by the Surveyor-
General of India at about 246,000 square miles.
In i885, when the second edition of the Imperial Gazetteer was
published, it was possible to state the boundaries of Afghanistan only
in rough geographical outline; to-day they are, except in a few
localities, as well defined by international agreement and subsequent
delimitation as those of a state in Europe.