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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 72.

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had been the actual rulers for nearly a hundred years. The eastern
portion, which is now British territory, was acquired, partly by cession
from the Nawab of Oudh in I8o0, and partly by conquest from the
Marathas in 1803, and was at first included, with other areas acquired
at the same periods, in the Presidency of Bengal. Administrative
difficulties arose, owing to the distance of these outlying tracts from the
seat of Government at Calcutta; and, after various temporary measures,
a Board of Revenue and a Sadr Diwani and Nizamat Adalat (Chief
Civil and Criminal Courts) were constituted in I831 for the so-called
Western Provinces, entirely independent of the Board and Courts at
Calcutta. A few years later a Presidency of Agra was formed by the
statute 3 and 4 William IV, cap. 85, which comprised the whole of the
present UNITED PROVINCES, except Oudh and parts of Bundelkhand,
and a Governor was appointed. The scheme was, however, never
completely carried out; and a Lieutenant-Governor of the North-
Western Provinces, which included the same area, was appointed in
1836 under the statute 5 and 6 William IV, cap. 52. By Act VII of
1902 a change was made in designation, and the North-Western
Provinces and Oudh became the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
The term 'Agra' is now applied (section 4 (4), United Provinces Act I of
1904) to the territories formerly known as the North-Western Provinces.
Agra Division.-A Division in the United Provinces, lying between
26 22' and 28 2' N. and 77 17' and 80 i' E., with an area of
10,078 square miles. It is situated in the west of the Provinces, and
the greater portion forms the central part of the DOAB or area between
the Ganges and Jumna rivers. On the north lie Aligarh District in the
Meerut Division, and the Punjab District of Gurgaon, while the Ganges
forms most of the eastern boundary, dividing the Agra from the Bareilly
Division and from Oudh. The southern border meets the Allahabad
Division and the States of Gwalior and Dholpur, while the western
frontier marches with Bharatpur State. The head-quarters of the
Commissioner are at AGRA CITY. The population of the Division
has fluctuated considerably, as shown by the figures of the last four
enumerations: (1872) 5,039,247, (I88I) 4,834,064, (I891) 4,767,375,
and (1901) 5,249,542. In 1877-8 the Division suffered from famine,
and between i88i and 1891 from floods. During the last decade the
eastern Districts recovered rapidly. The density is 521 persons per
square mile, compared with 445 for the Provinces as a whole. The
Division is smaller than any other in the Provinces except Gorakhpur,
but ranks seventh in population. In go19 Hindus formed go per cent.
of the total and Musalmans 9 per cent., while among the followers of
other religions were Jains (28,205), Christians (o1,875, of whom 9,847
were natives), and Aryas (10,736). The Division comprises six Districts,
as shown in the table on the next page.

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