breaks, while in the west of Fatehpur Sikri a few ranges of low rocky
hills appear. South of the Utangan lie two smaller tracts of markedly
different appearance. In the south-west a low range and numerous
isolated hills are found, and the country is traversed by many water-
courses. The south-east of the District consists of a long strip of land,
wider in the centre than at the ends, lying between the Utangan and
Jumna on the north, and the Chambal on the south. Half of this area
is occupied by the deep and far-spreading ravines of the rivers.
The District is almost entirely occupied by the Gangetic alluvium,
which conceals all the older rocks, except in the west and south-west,
where ridges of Upper Vindhyan sandstone rise out of the plain.
Several divisions appear to be represented, from the lowest, known as
the Kaimur group, to the highest, known as the Bhander. A boring
at Agra was carried to a depth of 513 feet before striking the under-
The flora is that of the Doab north of the Jumna, while south of the
great river it resembles that of Rajputana. The former area is fairly
well wooded, while in the latter trees are scarce.
Leopards and hyenas are found in the ravines and in the western
hills, while wolves are common near the Jumna, and 'ravine deer'
(gazelle) frequent the same haunts. Antelope are to be seen in most
parts of the District. Fish are plentiful in the rivers and are eaten by
:Owing to its proximity to the sandy deserts on the west, Agra District
is very dry, and suffers from greater extremes of temperature than the
country farther east. Though cold in winter, and exceedingly hot in
summer, the climate is not unhealthy. The mean annual temperature
is about 75°; the lowest monthly average being about 59° in January,
and the highest 95° or 96° in May and June.
The annual rainfall averages about 26 inches. There is not much
variation in different parts, but the tract near the Jumna receives the
largest fall. Great variations occur from year to year, the amount
ranging from 1I to 36 inches.
The District of Agra has scarcely any history, apart from the city.
Sikandar Lodi, king of Delhi, had a residence on the left bank of the
JHi y. umna, which became the capital of the empire
about 1501. It was occupied by Babar after his
victory over Ibrahim Khan in 1526, and its foundations are still
to be seen opposite the modern Agra. Babar fought a decisive
battle with the Rajputs near Fatehpur Sikri in 1527. His son,
Humayin, also resided at Old Agra, until his expulsion in 1540.
Akbar lived in the District for the greater part of his reign, and
founded the present city of Agra on the right bank. The town of
Fatehpur Sikri, which owes its origin to the same emperor, dates from