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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 94.


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94


AHMADABAD DISTRICT


Bombay Presidency, lying between 21 26' and 23 37' N. and 7I r9'
and 73 27' E., with a total area of 3,816 square miles. It is bounded
on the west and south by the peninsula of Kathiawar; on the north by
the northern division of Baroda territory; on the north-east by Mahi
Kantha territory; on the east by the State of Balasinor and the District
of Kaira; and on the south-east by the State and Gulf of Cambay. The
boundary line is irregular, and two portions, the Parantij tdluka in the
north-east and the Gogha petha in the south, are cut off from the main
body of the District by the territories of native States. The compactness
of the District is also broken by several villages belonging to Baroda
and Kathiawar which lie within it, while several of its own are scattered
in small groups beyond its borders.
The general appearance of the District shows that at no very remote
period it was covered by the sea. The tract between the head of the
Gulf of Cambay and the Rann of Cutch is still subject
aPysical to overflow at high tides. In the extreme south, and
also just beyond the northern boundary, are a few
rocky hills. But between these points the whole of the District forms
a level plain, gradually rising towards the north and east, its surface
unbroken by any inequality greater than a sandhill.
The chief physical feature is the river SABARMATI, which rises in the
north-east, near the extremity of the Aravalli range, and flows towards
the south-west, falling finally into the Gulf of Cambay. The river
has three tributaries, the Khari, Meshwa, and Majham, which, with
the Shelva and Andhari, all flow south-west. Flowing east from
Kathiawar are the Bhogava, Bhadar, Utavli, Nilki, Pinjaria, and Adhia
rivers. The waters of the Khari are diverted for the irrigation of more
than 3,000 acres by canals i6 miles in length. The only large lake in
the District is situated in the south of the Viramgam tdluka, about
37 miles south-west of Ahmadabad city. This sheet of water, called the
NAL, is estimated to cover an area of 49 square miles. Its water, at
all times brackish, grows more saline as the dry season advances. The
borders of the lake are fringed with reeds and other rank vegetation,
affording cover to innumerable wild-fowl. In the bed of the lake are
many small islands, much used as grazing-grounds during the hot
season. In the north of the District, near the town of Parantij, in
a hollow called the Bokh (lit. a fissure or chasm), are two smaller lakes.
Of these, the larger covers an area of about i60 acres, with a depth of
30 feet of sweet water; and the smaller, with an area of 31 acres, is
8 feet deep during the rains and cold season, but occasionally dries up
before the close of the hot season. There are several creeks, of which
the most important are those of Dholera, Gogha, and Bavliari.
The District is occupied mostly by alluvial plains. The superficial
covering of alluvium is, however, of no great thickness. The underlying



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