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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 110.


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AIIMADABAD CITY


proverb, hangs on three threads, silk, gold, and cotton; and though the
hand manufactures are now on a smaller scale than formerly, these
industries still support a large section of the population. All the
processes connected with the manufacture of silk and brocaded goods
are carried on. Of both the white and yellow varieties of China silk,
the consumption is large. Basra silk arrives in a raw state. The best
is valued at Rs. 18 or Rs. 20 a pound. The Bengal silk fetches almost
an equal price. Ahmadabad silk goods find a market in Bombay,
Kathiawar, Rajputana, Central India, Nagpur, and the Nizam's
Dominions. The manufacture of gold and silver thread, which are
worked into the richer varieties of silk cloth and brocade, supports a con-
siderable number of people. Tin- and electro-plating are also carried on
to some extent. Many families are engaged as hand-loom weavers work-
ing up cotton cloth. Black-wood carving is another important industry,
and the finest specimens of this class of work may here be seen.
The common pottery of Ahmadabad is far superior to most of the
earthenware manufactures of Western India. The clay is collected
under the walls of the city, and is fashioned into domestic utensils,
tiles, bricks, and toys. To give the clay a bright colour the potters use
red ochre or ramchi. white earth or khari, and mica or abrak, either
singly or mixed together. No glaze is employed, but the surface of the
vessels is polished by the friction either of a piece of bamboo or of a
string of agate pebbles. A few of the potters are Musalmans, but the
majority are Hindus. A considerable manufacture of shoes and leather-
work gives employment to a large number. The manufacture of paper,
which was formerly an industry of some importance, is declining; and
the little paper now made is used exclusively for native account-books.
The principal industry of Ahmadabad is the spinning and weaving of
cotton yarns and piece-goods in factories. The first mill was opened
I86I. By 1904 there were 34 mills, with about 569,00o spindles and
7,035 looms, employing I8,ooo to 20,000 persons daily, and represent-
ing a capital of I50 lakhs. Some of the finest cloth woven in Indian
mills is made at Ahmadabad, usually from imported yarn. In 1904 the
mills produced 42 million pounds of yarn and 26 million pounds of
woven goods, largely for local consumption, though some part of the
out-turn is exported. There are also an oil-mill, a match factory, and
dye-works.
Besides 89 private and public vernacular schools, the city has an
Arts college with a law class attached to it. It also contains two training
colleges, one for male and the other for female teachers, a medical
school, and a commercial class. In i86i a law lectureship was founded
in Ahmadabad, to which lectures in English, Sanskrit, logic, mathematics,
and science were subsequently added; but the classes were poorly
attended and were closed in I873. In 1879 the Gujarat College was



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